From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Kremlin \Krem"lin\, n. [Russ. kremle.]
   1. The citadel of a town or city; especially, the citadel of
      Moscow, a large inclosure which contains imperial palaces,
      cathedrals, churches, an arsenal, etc. [Russia]

   2. Hence: The government of Russia (or, 1920-1992, of the
      Soviet Union). [metonymical]
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