From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Kulturkampf \Kul*tur"kampf`\, n. [G., fr. kultur, cultur,
   culture + kampf fight.] (Ger. Hist.)
   Lit., culture war; -- a name, originating with Virchow (1821
   - 1902), given to a struggle between the Roman Catholic
   Church and the German government, chiefly over the latter's
   efforts to control educational and ecclesiastical
   appointments in the interest of the political policy of
   centralization. The struggle began with the passage by the
   Prussian Diet in May, 1873, of the so-called

   May laws, or

   Falk laws, aiming at the regulation of the clergy.
      Opposition eventually compelled the government to change
      its policy, and from 1880 to 1887 laws virtually
      nullifying the May laws were enacted.
      [Webster 1913 Suppl.] Kumish
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