normal


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Normal \Nor"mal\ (n[^o]r"mal), a. [L. normalis, fr. norma rule,
   pattern, carpenter's square; prob. akin to noscere to know;
   cf. Gr. gnw`rimos well known, gnw`mwn gnomon, also,
   carpenter's square: cf. F. normal. See Known, and cf.
   Abnormal, Enormous.]
   [1913 Webster]
   1. According to an established norm, rule, or principle;
      conformed to a type, standard, or regular form; performing
      the proper functions; not abnormal; regular; natural;
      analogical.
      [1913 Webster]

            Deviations from the normal type.      --Hallam.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. (Geom.) According to a square or rule; perpendicular;
      forming a right angle; as, a line normal to the base.
      Specifically: Of or pertaining to a normal.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. (Chem.) Standard; original; exact; typical. Specifically:
      (a) (Quantitative Analysis) Denoting a solution of such
          strength that every cubic centimeter contains the same
          number of milligrams of the element in question as the
          number of its molecular weight.
      (b) (Chem.) Denoting certain hypothetical compounds, as
          acids from which the real acids are obtained by
          dehydration; thus, normal sulphuric acid and normal
          nitric acid are respectively S(OH)6, and N(OH)5.
      (c) (Organ. Chem.) Denoting that series of hydrocarbons in
          which no carbon atom is bound to more than two other
          carbon atoms; as, normal pentane, hexane, etc. Cf.
          Iso-.
          [1913 Webster]

   Normal equations (Method of Least Squares), a set of
      equations of the first degree equal in number to the
      number of unknown quantities, and derived from the
      observations by a specified process. The solution of the
      normal equations gives the most probable values of the
      unknown quantities.

   Normal group (Geol.), a group of rocks taken as a standard.
      --Lyell.

   Normal place (of a planet or comet) (Astron.), the apparent
      place in the heavens of a planet or comet at a specified
      time, the place having been determined by a considerable
      number of observations, extending perhaps over many days,
      and so combined that the accidental errors of observation
      have largely balanced each other.

   Normal school, a school whose methods of instruction are to
      serve as a model for imitation; an institution for the
      training of teachers.
      [1913 Webster]

   Syn: Normal, Regular, Ordinary.

   Usage: Regular and ordinary are popular terms of well-known
          signification; normal has now a more specific sense,
          arising out of its use in science. A thing is normal,
          or in its normal state, when strictly conformed to
          those principles of its constitution which mark its
          species or to the standard of a healthy and natural
          condition. It is abnormal when it departs from those
          principles.
          [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Normal \Nor"mal\ (n[^o]r"mal), n. [Cf. F. normale, ligne
   normale. See Normal, a.]
   1. (Geom.) Any perpendicular.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. (Geom.) A straight line or plane drawn from any point of a
      curve or surface so as to be perpendicular to the curve or
      surface at that point.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: The term normal is also used to denote the distance
         along the normal line from the curve to the axis of
         abscissas or to the center of curvature.
         [1913 Webster]
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