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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Ultramontanism \Ul`tra*mon"ta*nism\, n. [Cf. F. ultramontanisme.] The principles of those within the Roman Catholic Church who maintain extreme views favoring the pope's supremacy; -- so used by those living north of the Alps in reference to the Italians; -- rarely used in an opposite sense, as referring to the views of those living north of the Alps and opposed to the papal claims. Cf. Gallicanism. [1913 Webster]