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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Voluntarism \Vol"un*ta*rism\, n. 1. (Philosophy) Any theory which conceives will to be the dominant factor in experience or in the constitution of the world; -- contrasted with intellectualism. Schopenhauer and Fichte are typical exponents of the two types of metaphysical voluntarism, Schopenhauer teaching that the evolution of the universe is the activity of a blind and irrational will, Fichte holding that the intelligent activity of the ego is the fundamental fact of reality. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] 2. The principle or practice of depending on volunteers to support institutions or perform some desired action. [PJC] 3. A political philosophy opposed to dependence on governmental action or support for social services that might be performed by private groups. [PJC]