absolute zero


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Zero \Ze"ro\, n.; pl. Zerosor Zeroes. [F. z['e]ro, from Ar.
   [,c]afrun, [,c]ifrun, empty, a cipher. Cf. Cipher.]
   [1913 Webster]
   1. (Arith.) A cipher; nothing; naught.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. The point from which the graduation of a scale, as of a
      thermometer, commences.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: Zero in the Centigrade, or Celsius thermometer, and in
         the R['e]aumur thermometer, is at the point at which
         water congeals. The zero of the Fahrenheit thermometer
         is fixed at the point at which the mercury stands when
         immersed in a mixture of snow and common salt. In
         Wedgwood's pyrometer, the zero corresponds with
         1077[deg] on the Fahrenheit scale. See Illust. of
         Thermometer.
         [1913 Webster]

   3. Fig.: The lowest point; the point of exhaustion; as, his
      patience had nearly reached zero.
      [1913 Webster]

   Absolute zero. See under Absolute.

   Zero method (Physics), a method of comparing, or measuring,
      forces, electric currents, etc., by so opposing them that
      the pointer of an indicating apparatus, or the needle of a
      galvanometer, remains at, or is brought to, zero, as
      contrasted with methods in which the deflection is
      observed directly; -- called also null method.

   Zero point, the point indicating zero, or the commencement
      of a scale or reckoning.
      [1913 Webster]
      [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Absolute \Ab"so*lute\, a. [L. absolutus, p. p. of absolvere: cf.
   F. absolu. See Absolve.]
   1. Loosed from any limitation or condition; uncontrolled;
      unrestricted; unconditional; as, absolute authority,
      monarchy, sovereignty, an absolute promise or command;
      absolute power; an absolute monarch.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. Complete in itself; perfect; consummate; faultless; as,
      absolute perfection; absolute beauty.
      [1913 Webster]

            So absolute she seems,
            And in herself complete.              --Milton.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. Viewed apart from modifying influences or without
      comparison with other objects; actual; real; -- opposed to
      relative and comparative; as, absolute motion;
      absolute time or space.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: Absolute rights and duties are such as pertain to man
         in a state of nature as contradistinguished from
         relative rights and duties, or such as pertain to him
         in his social relations.
         [1913 Webster]

   4. Loosed from, or unconnected by, dependence on any other
      being; self-existent; self-sufficing.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: In this sense God is called the Absolute by the Theist.
         The term is also applied by the Pantheist to the
         universe, or the total of all existence, as only
         capable of relations in its parts to each other and to
         the whole, and as dependent for its existence and its
         phenomena on its mutually depending forces and their
         laws.
         [1913 Webster]

   5. Capable of being thought or conceived by itself alone;
      unconditioned; non-relative.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: It is in dispute among philosopher whether the term, in
         this sense, is not applied to a mere logical fiction or
         abstraction, or whether the absolute, as thus defined,
         can be known, as a reality, by the human intellect.
         [1913 Webster]

               To Cusa we can indeed articulately trace, word
               and thing, the recent philosophy of the absolute.
                                                  --Sir W.
                                                  Hamilton.
         [1913 Webster]

   6. Positive; clear; certain; not doubtful. [R.]
      [1913 Webster]

            I am absolute 't was very Cloten.     --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

   7. Authoritative; peremptory. [R.]
      [1913 Webster]

            The peddler stopped, and tapped her on the head,
            With absolute forefinger, brown and ringed. --Mrs.
                                                  Browning.
      [1913 Webster]

   8. (Chem.) Pure; unmixed; as, absolute alcohol.
      [1913 Webster]

   9. (Gram.) Not immediately dependent on the other parts of
      the sentence in government; as, the case absolute. See
      Ablative absolute, under Ablative.
      [1913 Webster]

   Absolute curvature (Geom.), that curvature of a curve of
      double curvature, which is measured in the osculating
      plane of the curve.

   Absolute equation (Astron.), the sum of the optic and
      eccentric equations.

   Absolute space (Physics), space considered without relation
      to material limits or objects.

   Absolute terms. (Alg.), such as are known, or which do not
      contain the unknown quantity. --Davies & Peck.

   Absolute temperature (Physics), the temperature as measured
      on a scale determined by certain general thermo-dynamic
      principles, and reckoned from the absolute zero.

   Absolute zero (Physics), the be ginning, or zero point, in
      the scale of absolute temperature. It is equivalent to
      -273[deg] centigrade or -459.4[deg] Fahrenheit.
      [1913 Webster]

   Syn: Positive; peremptory; certain; unconditional; unlimited;
        unrestricted; unqualified; arbitrary; despotic;
        autocratic.
        [1913 Webster]
Feedback Form