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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Artesian \Ar*te"sian\, a. [F. art['e]sien, fr. Artois in France, where many such wells have been made since the middle of the last century.] Of or pertaining to Artois (anciently called Artesium), in France. [1913 Webster] Artesian wells, wells made by boring into the earth till the instrument reaches water, which, from internal pressure, flows spontaneously like a fountain. They are usually of small diameter and often of great depth. [1913 Webster]