back


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Back \Back\, n. [F. bac: cf. Arm. bag, bak a bark, D. bak tray,
   bowl.]
   1. A large shallow vat; a cistern, tub, or trough, used by
      brewers, distillers, dyers, picklers, gluemakers, and
      others, for mixing or cooling wort, holding water, hot
      glue, etc.
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   Hop back, Jack back, the cistern which receives the
      infusion of malt and hops from the copper.

   Wash back, a vat in which distillers ferment the wort to
      form wash.

   Water back, a cistern to hold a supply of water; esp. a
      small cistern at the back of a stove, or a group of pipes
      set in the fire box of a stove or furnace, through which
      water circulates and is heated.
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   2. A ferryboat. See Bac, 1.
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Back \Back\ (b[a^]k), n. [AS. b[ae]c, bac; akin to Icel., Sw., &
   LG. bak, Dan. bag; cf. OHG. bahho ham, Skr. bhaj to turn,
   OSlav. b[=e]g[u^] flight. Cf. Bacon.]
   1. In human beings, the hinder part of the body, extending
      from the neck to the end of the spine; in other animals,
      that part of the body which corresponds most nearly to
      such part of a human being; as, the back of a horse, fish,
      or lobster.
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   2. An extended upper part, as of a mountain or ridge.
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            [The mountains] their broad bare backs upheave
            Into the clouds.                      --Milton.
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   3. The outward or upper part of a thing, as opposed to the
      inner or lower part; as, the back of the hand, the back of
      the foot, the back of a hand rail.
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            Methought Love pitying me, when he saw this,
            Gave me your hands, the backs and palms to kiss.
                                                  --Donne.
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   4. The part opposed to the front; the hinder or rear part of
      a thing; as, the back of a book; the back of an army; the
      back of a chimney.
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   5. The part opposite to, or most remote from, that which
      fronts the speaker or actor; or the part out of sight, or
      not generally seen; as, the back of an island, of a hill,
      or of a village.
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   6. The part of a cutting tool on the opposite side from its
      edge; as, the back of a knife, or of a saw.
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   7. A support or resource in reserve.
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            This project
            Should have a back or second, that might hold,
            If this should blast in proof.        --Shak.
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   8. (Naut.) The keel and keelson of a ship.
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   9. (Mining) The upper part of a lode, or the roof of a
      horizontal underground passage.
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   10. A garment for the back; hence, clothing. [Obs.]
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             A bak to walken inne by daylight.    --Chaucer.
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   Behind one's back, when one is absent; without one's
      knowledge; as, to ridicule a person behind his back.

   Full back, Half back, Quarter back (Football), players
      stationed behind those in the front line.

   To be on one's back or To lie on one's back, to be
      helpless.

   To put one's back up or to get one's back up, to assume
      an attitude of obstinate resistance (from the action of a
      cat when attacked). [Colloq.]

   To see the back of, to get rid of.

   To turn the back, to go away; to flee.

   To turn the back on one, to forsake or neglect him.
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Back \Back\ (b[a^]k), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Backed (b[a^]kt); p.
   pr. & vb. n. Backing.]
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   1. To get upon the back of; to mount.
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            I will back him [a horse] straight.   --Shak.
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   2. To place or seat upon the back. [R.]
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            Great Jupiter, upon his eagle backed,
            Appeared to me.                       --Shak.
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   3. To drive or force backward; to cause to retreat or recede;
      as, to back oxen.
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   4. To make a back for; to furnish with a back; as, to back
      books.
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   5. To adjoin behind; to be at the back of.
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            A garden . . . with a vineyard backed. --Shak.
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            The chalk cliffs which back the beach. --Huxley.
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   6. To write upon the back of; as, to back a letter; to
      indorse; as, to back a note or legal document.
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   7. To support; to maintain; to second or strengthen by aid or
      influence; as, to back a friend. "The Parliament would be
      backed by the people." --Macaulay.
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            Have still found it necessary to back and fortify
            their laws with rewards and punishments. --South.
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            The mate backed the captain manfully. --Blackw. Mag.
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   8. To bet on the success of; -- as, to back a race horse.
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   To back an anchor (Naut.), to lay down a small anchor ahead
      of a large one, the cable of the small one being fastened
      to the crown of the large one.

   To back the field, in horse racing, to bet against a
      particular horse or horses, that some one of all the other
      horses, collectively designated "the field", will win.

   To back the oars, to row backward with the oars.

   To back a rope, to put on a preventer.

   To back the sails, to arrange them so as to cause the ship
      to move astern.

   To back up, to support; to sustain; as, to back up one's
      friends.

   To back a warrant (Law), is for a justice of the peace, in
      the county where the warrant is to be executed, to sign or
      indorse a warrant, issued in another county, to apprehend
      an offender.

   To back water (Naut.), to reverse the action of the oars,
      paddles, or propeller, so as to force the boat or ship
      backward.
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Back \Back\, a.
   1. Being at the back or in the rear; distant; remote; as, the
      back door; back settlements.
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   2. Being in arrear; overdue; as, back rent.
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   3. Moving or operating backward; as, back action.
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   Back blocks, Australian pastoral country which is remote
      from the seacoast or from a river. [Webster 1913 Suppl.]
      

   Back charges, charges brought forward after an account has
      been made up.

   Back filling (Arch.), the mass of materials used in filling
      up the space between two walls, or between the inner and
      outer faces of a wall, or upon the haunches of an arch or
      vault.

   Back pressure. (Steam Engine) See under Pressure.

   Back rest, a guide attached to the slide rest of a lathe,
      and placed in contact with the work, to steady it in
      turning.

   Back slang, a kind of slang in which every word is written
      or pronounced backwards; as, nam for man.

   Back stairs, stairs in the back part of a house; private
      stairs. Also used adjectively. See Back stairs,
      Backstairs, and Backstair, in the Vocabulary.

   Back step (Mil.), the retrograde movement of a man or body
      of men, without changing front.

   Back stream, a current running against the main current of
      a stream; an eddy.

   To take the back track, to retrace one's steps; to retreat.
      [Colloq.]
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Back \Back\, v. i.
   1. To move or go backward; as, the horse refuses to back.
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   2. (Naut.) To change from one quarter to another by a course
      opposite to that of the sun; -- used of the wind.
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   3. (Sporting) To stand still behind another dog which has
      pointed; -- said of a dog. [Eng.]
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   To back and fill, to manage the sails of a ship so that the
      wind strikes them alternately in front and behind, in
      order to keep the ship in the middle of a river or channel
      while the current or tide carries the vessel against the
      wind. Hence: (Fig.) To take opposite positions
      alternately; to assert and deny. [Colloq.]

   To back out, To back down, to retreat or withdraw from a
      promise, engagement, or contest; to recede. [Colloq.]
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            Cleon at first . . . was willing to go; but, finding
            that he [Nicias] was in earnest, he tried to back
            out.                                  --Jowett
                                                  (Thucyd. )
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Back \Back\, adv. [Shortened from aback.]
   1. In, to, or toward, the rear; as, to stand back; to step
      back.
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   2. To the place from which one came; to the place or person
      from which something is taken or derived; as, to go back
      for something left behind; to go back to one's native
      place; to put a book back after reading it.
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   3. To a former state, condition, or station; as, to go back
      to private life; to go back to barbarism.
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   4. (Of time) In times past; ago. "Sixty or seventy years
      back." --Gladstone.
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   5. Away from contact; by reverse movement.
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            The angel of the Lord . . . came, and rolled back
            the stone from the door.              --Matt.
                                                  xxviii. 2.
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   6. In concealment or reserve; in one's own possession; as, to
      keep back the truth; to keep back part of the money due to
      another.
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   7. In a state of restraint or hindrance.
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            The Lord hath kept thee back from honor. --Numb.
                                                  xxiv. 11.
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   8. In return, repayment, or requital.
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            What have I to give you back?         --Shak.
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   9. In withdrawal from a statement, promise, or undertaking;
      as, he took back the offensive words.
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   10. In arrear; as, to be back in one's rent. [Colloq.]
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   Back and forth, backwards and forwards; to and fro.

   To go back on, to turn back from; to abandon; to betray;
      as, to go back on a friend; to go back on one's
      professions. [Colloq.]
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