bacterium lactis


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Lactic \Lac"tic\, a. [L. lac, lactis, milk: cf. F. lactique. See
   Lacteal, and cf. Galactic.] (Physiol. Chem.)
   Of or pertaining to milk; procured from sour milk or whey;
   as, lactic acid; lactic fermentation, etc.
   [1913 Webster]

   Lactic acid (Physiol. Chem.), a sirupy, colorless fluid,
      soluble in water, with an intensely sour taste and strong
      acid reaction. There is one center of optical activity,
      and this results in the observation of three isomeric
      modifications all having the formula C3H6O3; one is
      dextrorotatory (L-lactic acid), the other levorotatory
      (D-lactic acid), and the third an optically inactive
      mixture of the first two (DL-lactic acid); chemically it
      is 2-hydroxypropanoic acid. Sarcolactic acid or
      paralactic acid occurs chiefly in dead muscle tissue,
      while ordinary lactic acid (DL-lactic acid) results from
      fermentation, such as the fermentation of milk by lactic
      acid bacteria. The two acids are alike in having the same
      constitution (expressed by the name {ethylidene lactic
      acid}), but the latter is optically inactive, while
      sarcolactic acid rotates the plane of polarization to the
      right. The third acid, ethylene lactic acid, accompanies
      sarcolactic acid in the juice of flesh, and is optically
      inactive.

   Lactic ferment, an organized ferment (Bacterium lacticum
      or Bacterium lactis), which produces lactic
      fermentation, decomposing the sugar of milk into carbonic
      and lactic acids, the latter, of which renders the milk
      sour, and precipitates the casein, thus giving rise to the
      so-called spontaneous coagulation of milk.

   Lactic fermentation. See under Fermentation.
      [1913 Webster +PJC]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Zymogenic \Zym`o*gen"ic\, a. (Biol.)
   (a) Pertaining to, or formed by, a zymogene.
   (b) Capable of producing a definite zymogen or ferment.
       [1913 Webster]

   Zymogenic organism (Biol.), a microorganism, such as the
      yeast plant of the Bacterium lactis, which sets up
      certain fermentative processes by which definite chemical
      products are formed; -- distinguished from a {pathogenic
      organism}. Cf. Micrococcus.
      [1913 Webster] Zymologic
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Fermentation \Fer`men*ta"tion\ (f[~e]r`m[e^]n*t[=a]"sh[u^]n), n.
   [Cf. F. fermentation.]
   1. The process of undergoing an effervescent change, as by
      the action of yeast; in a wider sense (Physiol. Chem.),
      the transformation of an organic substance into new
      compounds by the action of a ferment[1], whether in the
      form of living organisms or enzymes. It differs in kind
      according to the nature of the ferment which causes it.

   Note: In industrial microbiology fermentation usually refers
         to the production of chemical substances by use of
         microorganisms.
         [1913 Webster +PJC]

   2. A state of agitation or excitement, as of the intellect or
      the feelings.
      [1913 Webster]

            It puts the soul to fermentation and activity.
                                                  --Jer. Taylor.
      [1913 Webster]

            A univesal fermentation of human thought and faith.
                                                  --C. Kingsley.
      [1913 Webster]

   Acetous fermentation or Acetic fermentation, a form of
      oxidation in which alcohol is converted into vinegar or
      acetic acid by the agency of a specific fungus ({Mycoderma
      aceti}) or series of enzymes. The process involves two
      distinct reactions, in which the oxygen of the air is
      essential. An intermediate product, acetaldehyde, is
      formed in the first process. 1. C2H6O + O [rarr] H2O +
      C2H4O

   Note: Alcohol. Water. Acetaldehyde. 2. C2H4O + O [rarr]
         C2H4O2

   Note: Acetaldehyde. Acetic acid.

   Alcoholic fermentation, the fermentation which saccharine
      bodies undergo when brought in contact with the yeast
      plant or Torula. The sugar is converted, either directly
      or indirectly, into alcohol and carbonic acid, the rate of
      action being dependent on the rapidity with which the
      Torul[ae] develop.

   Ammoniacal fermentation, the conversion of the urea of the
      urine into ammonium carbonate, through the growth of the
      special urea ferment. CON2H4 + 2H2O = (NH4)2CO3

   Note: Urea. Water. Ammonium carbonate.
         [1913 Webster]

   Note: Whenever urine is exposed to the air in open vessels
         for several days it undergoes this alkaline
         fermentation.

   Butyric fermentation, the decomposition of various forms of
      organic matter, through the agency of a peculiar
      worm-shaped vibrio, with formation of more or less butyric
      acid. It is one of the many forms of fermentation that
      collectively constitute putrefaction. See {Lactic
      fermentation}.

   enzymatic fermentation or {Fermentation by an unorganized
   ferment}. Fermentations of this class are purely chemical
      reactions, in which the enzyme acts as a simple catalytic
      agent. Of this nature are the decomposition or inversion
      of cane sugar into levulose and dextrose by boiling with
      dilute acids, the conversion of starch into dextrin and
      sugar by similar treatment, the conversion of starch into
      like products by the action of diastase of malt or ptyalin
      of saliva, the conversion of albuminous food into peptones
      and other like products by the action of
      pepsin-hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice or by the
      ferment of the pancreatic juice.

   Fermentation theory of disease (Biol. & Med.), the theory
      that most if not all, infectious or zymotic disease are
      caused by the introduction into the organism of the living
      germs of ferments, or ferments already developed
      (organized ferments), by which processes of fermentation
      are set up injurious to health. See Germ theory.

   Glycerin fermentation, the fermentation which occurs on
      mixing a dilute solution of glycerin with a peculiar
      species of schizomycetes and some carbonate of lime, and
      other matter favorable to the growth of the plant, the
      glycerin being changed into butyric acid, caproic acid,
      butyl, and ethyl alcohol. With another form of bacterium
      (Bacillus subtilis) ethyl alcohol and butyric acid are
      mainly formed.

   Lactic fermentation, the transformation of milk sugar or
      other saccharine body into lactic acid, as in the souring
      of milk, through the agency of a special bacterium
      (Bacterium lactis of Lister). In this change the milk
      sugar, before assuming the form of lactic acid, presumably
      passes through the stage of glucose. C12H22O11.H2O -->
      4C3H6O3

   Note: Hydrated milk sugar. Lactic acid.
         [1913 Webster]

   Note: In the lactic fermentation of dextrose or glucose, the
         lactic acid which is formed is very prone to undergo
         butyric fermentation after the manner indicated in the
         following equation: 2C3H6O3 (lactic acid) --> C4H8O2
         (butyric acid) + 2CO2 (carbonic acid) + 2H2 (hydrogen
         gas).

   Putrefactive fermentation. See Putrefaction.
      [1913 Webster]
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