From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Chalk \Chalk\ (ch[add]k), n. [AS. cealc lime, from L. calx
   limestone. See Calz, and Cawk.]
   1. (Min.) A soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or
      yellowish white color, consisting of calcium carbonate,
      and having the same composition as common limestone.
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   2. (Fine Arts) Finely prepared chalk, used as a drawing
      implement; also, by extension, a compound, as of clay and
      black lead, or the like, used in the same manner. See
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   Black chalk, a mineral of a bluish color, of a slaty
      texture, and soiling the fingers when handled; a variety
      of argillaceous slate.

   By a long chalk, by a long way; by many degrees. [Slang]

   Chalk drawing (Fine Arts), a drawing made with crayons. See

   Chalk formation. See Cretaceous formation, under

   Chalk line, a cord rubbed with chalk, used for making
      straight lines on boards or other material, as a guide in
      cutting or in arranging work.

   Chalk mixture, a preparation of chalk, cinnamon, and sugar
      in gum water, much used in diarrheal affection, esp. of

   Chalk period. (Geol.) See Cretaceous period, under

   Chalk pit, a pit in which chalk is dug.

   Drawing chalk. See Crayon, n., 1.

   French chalk, steatite or soapstone, a soft magnesian

   Red chalk, an indurated clayey ocher containing iron, and
      used by painters and artificers; reddle.
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Chalk \Chalk\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chalked; p. pr. & vb. n.
   1. To rub or mark with chalk.
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   2. To manure with chalk, as land. --Morimer.
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   3. To make white, as with chalk; to make pale; to bleach.
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            Let a bleak paleness chalk the door.  --Herbert.
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   To chalk out, to sketch with, or as with, chalk; to
      outline; to indicate; to plan. [Colloq.] "I shall pursue
      the plan I have chalked out." --Burke.
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