From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Peruvian \Pe*ru"vi*an\, a. [Cf. F. p['e]ruvien, Sp. peruviano.]
   Of or pertaining to Peru, in South America. -- n. A native or
   an inhabitant of Peru.
   [1913 Webster]

   Peruvian balsam. See Balsam of Peru, under Balsam.

   Peruvian bark, the bitter bark of trees of various species
      of Cinchona. It acts as a powerful tonic, and is a remedy
      for malarial diseases. This property is due to several
      alkaloids, as quinine, cinchonine, etc., and their
      compounds; -- called also Jesuit's bark, and cinchona.
      See Cinchona.
      [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Cinchona \Cin*cho"na\, n. [So named from the wife of Count
   Chinchon, viceroy of Peru in the seventeenth century, who by
   its use was freed from an intermittent fever, and after her
   return to Spain, contributed to the general propagation of
   this remedy.]
   1. (Bot.) A genus of trees growing naturally on the Andes in
      Peru and adjacent countries, but now cultivated in the
      East Indies, producing a medicinal bark of great value.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. (Med.) The bark of any species of Cinchona containing
      three per cent. or more of bitter febrifuge alkaloids;
      Peruvian bark; Jesuits' bark.
      [1913 Webster]
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