civil year


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Year \Year\, n. [OE. yer, yeer, [yogh]er, AS. ge['a]r; akin to
   OFries. i?r, g?r, D. jaar, OHG. j[=a]r, G. jahr, Icel. [=a]r,
   Dan. aar, Sw. [*a]r, Goth. j?r, Gr. ? a season of the year,
   springtime, a part of the day, an hour, ? a year, Zend
   y[=a]re year. [root]4, 279. Cf. Hour, Yore.]
   [1913 Webster]
   1. The time of the apparent revolution of the sun trough the
      ecliptic; the period occupied by the earth in making its
      revolution around the sun, called the astronomical year;
      also, a period more or less nearly agreeing with this,
      adopted by various nations as a measure of time, and
      called the civil year; as, the common lunar year of 354
      days, still in use among the Mohammedans; the year of 360
      days, etc. In common usage, the year consists of 365 days,
      and every fourth year (called bissextile, or leap year) of
      366 days, a day being added to February on that year, on
      account of the excess above 365 days (see Bissextile).
      [1913 Webster]

            Of twenty year of age he was, I guess. --Chaucer.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: The civil, or legal, year, in England, formerly
         commenced on the 25th of March. This practice continued
         throughout the British dominions till the year 1752.
         [1913 Webster]

   2. The time in which any planet completes a revolution about
      the sun; as, the year of Jupiter or of Saturn.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. pl. Age, or old age; as, a man in years. --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

   Anomalistic year, the time of the earth's revolution from
      perihelion to perihelion again, which is 365 days, 6
      hours, 13 minutes, and 48 seconds.

   A year's mind (Eccl.), a commemoration of a deceased
      person, as by a Mass, a year after his death. Cf. {A
      month's mind}, under Month.

   Bissextile year. See Bissextile.

   Canicular year. See under Canicular.

   Civil year, the year adopted by any nation for the
      computation of time.

   Common lunar year, the period of 12 lunar months, or 354
      days.

   Common year, each year of 365 days, as distinguished from
      leap year.

   Embolismic year, or Intercalary lunar year, the period of
      13 lunar months, or 384 days.

   Fiscal year (Com.), the year by which accounts are
      reckoned, or the year between one annual time of
      settlement, or balancing of accounts, and another.

   Great year. See Platonic year, under Platonic.

   Gregorian year, Julian year. See under Gregorian, and
      Julian.

   Leap year. See Leap year, in the Vocabulary.

   Lunar astronomical year, the period of 12 lunar synodical
      months, or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, 36 seconds.

   Lunisolar year. See under Lunisolar.

   Periodical year. See Anomalistic year, above.

   Platonic year, Sabbatical year. See under Platonic, and
      Sabbatical.

   Sidereal year, the time in which the sun, departing from
      any fixed star, returns to the same. This is 365 days, 6
      hours, 9 minutes, and 9.3 seconds.

   Tropical year. See under Tropical.

   Year and a day (O. Eng. Law), a time to be allowed for an
      act or an event, in order that an entire year might be
      secured beyond all question. --Abbott.

   Year of grace, any year of the Christian era; Anno Domini;
      A. D. or a. d.
      [1913 Webster] year 2000 bug
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Civil \Civ"il\, a. [L. civilis, fr. civis citizen: cf. F. civil.
   See City.]
   1. Pertaining to a city or state, or to a citizen in his
      relations to his fellow citizens or to the state; within
      the city or state.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. Subject to government; reduced to order; civilized; not
      barbarous; -- said of the community.
      [1913 Webster]

            England was very rude and barbarous; for it is but
            even the other day since England grew civil.
                                                  --Spenser.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. Performing the duties of a citizen; obedient to
      government; -- said of an individual.
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            Civil men come nearer the saints of God than others;
            they come within a step or two of heaven. --Preston
      [1913 Webster]

   4. Having the manners of one dwelling in a city, as opposed
      to those of savages or rustics; polite; courteous;
      complaisant; affable.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: "A civil man now is one observant of slight external
         courtesies in the mutual intercourse between man and
         man; a civil man once was one who fulfilled all the
         duties and obligations flowing from his position as a
         'civis' and his relations to the other members of that
         'civitas.'" --Trench
         [1913 Webster]

   5. Pertaining to civic life and affairs, in distinction from
      military, ecclesiastical, or official state.
      [1913 Webster]

   6. Relating to rights and remedies sought by action or suit
      distinct from criminal proceedings.
      [1913 Webster]

   Civil action, an action to enforce the rights or redress
      the wrongs of an individual, not involving a criminal
      proceeding.

   Civil architecture, the architecture which is employed in
      constructing buildings for the purposes of civil life, in
      distinction from military and naval architecture, as
      private houses, palaces, churches, etc.

   Civil death. (Law.) See under Death.

   Civil engineering. See under Engineering.

   Civil law. See under Law.

   Civil list. See under List.

   Civil remedy (Law), that given to a person injured, by
      action, as opposed to a criminal prosecution.

   Civil service, all service rendered to and paid for by the
      state or nation other than that pertaining to naval or
      military affairs.

   Civil service reform, the substitution of business
      principles and methods for the spoils system in the
      conduct of the civil service, esp. in the matter of
      appointments to office.

   Civil state, the whole body of the laity or citizens not
      included under the military, maritime, and ecclesiastical
      states.

   Civil suit. Same as Civil action.

   Civil war. See under War.

   Civil year. See under Year.
      [1913 Webster]
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