crown glass


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Glass \Glass\ (gl[.a]s), n. [OE. glas, gles, AS. gl[ae]s; akin
   to D., G., Dan., & Sw. glas, Icel. glas, gler, Dan. glar; cf.
   AS. gl[ae]r amber, L. glaesum. Cf. Glare, n., Glaze, v.
   t.]
   [1913 Webster]
   1. A hard, brittle, translucent, and commonly transparent
      substance, white or colored, having a conchoidal fracture,
      and made by fusing together sand or silica with lime,
      potash, soda, or lead oxide. It is used for window panes
      and mirrors, for articles of table and culinary use, for
      lenses, and various articles of ornament.
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   Note: Glass is variously colored by the metallic oxides;
         thus, manganese colors it violet; copper (cuprous),
         red, or (cupric) green; cobalt, blue; uranium,
         yellowish green or canary yellow; iron, green or brown;
         gold, purple or red; tin, opaque white; chromium,
         emerald green; antimony, yellow.
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   2. (Chem.) Any substance having a peculiar glassy appearance,
      and a conchoidal fracture, and usually produced by fusion.
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   3. Anything made of glass. Especially:
      (a) A looking-glass; a mirror.
      (b) A vessel filled with running sand for measuring time;
          an hourglass; and hence, the time in which such a
          vessel is exhausted of its sand.
          [1913 Webster]

                She would not live
                The running of one glass.         --Shak.
      (c) A drinking vessel; a tumbler; a goblet; hence, the
          contents of such a vessel; especially; spirituous
          liquors; as, he took a glass at dinner.
      (d) An optical glass; a lens; a spyglass; -- in the
          plural, spectacles; as, a pair of glasses; he wears
          glasses.
      (e) A weatherglass; a barometer.
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   Note: Glass is much used adjectively or in combination; as,
         glass maker, or glassmaker; glass making or
         glassmaking; glass blower or glassblower, etc.
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   Bohemian glass, Cut glass, etc. See under Bohemian,
      Cut, etc.

   Crown glass, a variety of glass, used for making the finest
      plate or window glass, and consisting essentially of
      silicate of soda or potash and lime, with no admixture of
      lead; the convex half of an achromatic lens is composed of
      crown glass; -- so called from a crownlike shape given it
      in the process of blowing.

   Crystal glass, or Flint glass. See Flint glass, in the
      Vocabulary.

   Cylinder glass, sheet glass made by blowing the glass in
      the form of a cylinder which is then split longitudinally,
      opened out, and flattened.

   Glass of antimony, a vitreous oxide of antimony mixed with
      sulphide.

   Glass cloth, a woven fabric formed of glass fibers.

   Glass coach, a coach superior to a hackney-coach, hired for
      the day, or any short period, as a private carriage; -- so
      called because originally private carriages alone had
      glass windows. [Eng.] --Smart.
      [1913 Webster]

            Glass coaches are [allowed in English parks from
            which ordinary hacks are excluded], meaning by this
            term, which is never used in America, hired
            carriages that do not go on stands.   --J. F.
                                                  Cooper.

   Glass cutter.
      (a) One who cuts sheets of glass into sizes for window
          panes, ets.
      (b) One who shapes the surface of glass by grinding and
          polishing.
      (c) A tool, usually with a diamond at the point, for
          cutting glass.

   Glass cutting.
      (a) The act or process of dividing glass, as sheets of
          glass into panes with a diamond.
      (b) The act or process of shaping the surface of glass by
          appylying it to revolving wheels, upon which sand,
          emery, and, afterwards, polishing powder, are applied;
          especially of glass which is shaped into facets, tooth
          ornaments, and the like. Glass having ornamental
          scrolls, etc., cut upon it, is said to be engraved.

   Glass metal, the fused material for making glass.

   Glass painting, the art or process of producing decorative
      effects in glass by painting it with enamel colors and
      combining the pieces together with slender sash bars of
      lead or other metal. In common parlance, glass painting
      and glass staining (see Glass staining, below) are used
      indifferently for all colored decorative work in windows,
      and the like.

   Glass paper, paper faced with pulvirezed glass, and used
      for abrasive purposes.

   Glass silk, fine threads of glass, wound, when in fusion,
      on rapidly rotating heated cylinders.

   Glass silvering, the process of transforming plate glass
      into mirrors by coating it with a reflecting surface, a
      deposit of silver, or a mercury amalgam.

   Glass soap, or Glassmaker's soap, the black oxide of
      manganese or other substances used by glass makers to take
      away color from the materials for glass.

   Glass staining, the art or practice of coloring glass in
      its whole substance, or, in the case of certain colors, in
      a superficial film only; also, decorative work in glass.
      Cf. Glass painting.

   Glass tears. See Rupert's drop.

   Glass works, an establishment where glass is made.

   Heavy glass, a heavy optical glass, consisting essentially
      of a borosilicate of potash.

   Millefiore glass. See Millefiore.

   Plate glass, a fine kind of glass, cast in thick plates,
      and flattened by heavy rollers, -- used for mirrors and
      the best windows.

   Pressed glass, glass articles formed in molds by pressure
      when hot.

   Soluble glass (Chem.), a silicate of sodium or potassium,
      found in commerce as a white, glassy mass, a stony powder,
      or dissolved as a viscous, sirupy liquid; -- used for
      rendering fabrics incombustible, for hardening artificial
      stone, etc.; -- called also water glass.

   Spun glass, glass drawn into a thread while liquid.

   Toughened glass, Tempered glass, glass finely tempered or
      annealed, by a peculiar method of sudden cooling by
      plunging while hot into oil, melted wax, or paraffine,
      etc.; -- called also, from the name of the inventor of the
      process, Bastie glass.

   Water glass. (Chem.) See Soluble glass, above.

   Window glass, glass in panes suitable for windows.
      [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Crown \Crown\ (kroun), n. [OE. corone, coroun, crune, croun, OF.
   corone, corune, F. couronne, fr. L. corona crown, wreath;
   akin to Gr. korw`nh anything curved, crown; cf. also L.
   curvus curved, E. curve, curb, Gael. cruinn round, W. crwn.
   Cf. Cornice, Corona, Coroner, Coronet.]
   1. A wreath or garland, or any ornamental fillet encircling
      the head, especially as a reward of victory or mark of
      honorable distinction; hence, anything given on account
      of, or obtained by, faithful or successful effort; a
      reward. "An olive branch and laurel crown." --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

            They do it to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an
            incorruptible.                        --1 Cor. ix.
                                                  25.
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            Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a
            crown of life.                        --Rev. ii. 10.
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   2. A royal headdress or cap of sovereignty, worn by emperors,
      kings, princes, etc.
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   Note: Nobles wear coronets; the triple crown of the pope is
         usually called a tiara. The crown of England is a
         circle of gold with crosses, fleurs-de-lis, and
         imperial arches, inclosing a crimson velvet cap, and
         ornamented with thousands of diamonds and precious
         stones.
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   3. The person entitled to wear a regal or imperial crown; the
      sovereign; -- with the definite article.
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            Parliament may be dissolved by the demise of the
            crown.                                --Blackstone.
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            Large arrears of pay were due to the civil and
            military servants of the crown.       --Macaulay.
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   4. Imperial or regal power or dominion; sovereignty.
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            There is a power behind the crown greater than the
            crown itself.                         --Junius.
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   5. Anything which imparts beauty, splendor, honor, dignity,
      or finish.
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            The hoary head is a crown of glory, if it be found
            in the way of righteousness.          --Prov. xvi.
                                                  31.
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            A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband. --Prov.
                                                  xvi. 4.
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   6. Highest state; acme; consummation; perfection.
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            Mutual love, the crown of all our bliss. --Milton.
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   7. The topmost part of anything; the summit.
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            The steepy crown of the bare mountains. --Dryden.
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   8. The topmost part of the head (see Illust. of Bird.);
      that part of the head from which the hair descends toward
      the sides and back; also, the head or brain.
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            From toe to crown he'll fill our skin with pinches.
                                                  --Shak.
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            Twenty things which I set down:
            This done, I twenty more-had in my crown. --Bunyan.
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   9. The part of a hat above the brim.
      [1913 Webster]

   10. (Anat.) The part of a tooth which projects above the gum;
       also, the top or grinding surface of a tooth.
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   11. (Arch.) The vertex or top of an arch; -- applied
       generally to about one third of the curve, but in a
       pointed arch to the apex only.
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   12. (Bot.) Same as Corona.
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   13. (Naut.)
       (a) That part of an anchor where the arms are joined to
           the shank.
       (b) The rounding, or rounded part, of the deck from a
           level line.
       (c) pl. The bights formed by the several turns of a
           cable. --Totten.
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   14. The upper range of facets in a rose diamond.
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   15. The dome of a furnace.
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   16. (Geom.) The area inclosed between two concentric
       perimeters.
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   17. (Eccl.) A round spot shaved clean on the top of the head,
       as a mark of the clerical state; the tonsure.
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   18. A size of writing paper. See under Paper.
       [1913 Webster]

   19. A coin stamped with the image of a crown; hence,a
       denomination of money; as, the English crown, a silver
       coin of the value of five shillings sterling, or a little
       more than $1.20; the Danish or Norwegian crown, a money
       of account, etc., worth nearly twenty-seven cents.
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   20. An ornaments or decoration representing a crown; as, the
       paper is stamped with a crown.
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   Crown of aberration (Astron.), a spurious circle around the
      true circle of the sun.

   Crown antler (Zool.), the topmost branch or tine of an
      antler; also, an antler having a cuplike top, with tines
      springing from the rim.

   Crown bar, one of the bars which support the crown sheet of
      steam-boiler furnace.

   Crown glass. See under Glass.

   Crown imperial. (Bot.) See in the Vocabulary.

   Crown jewels, the jewels appertaining to the sovereign
      while wearing the crown. [Eng.] "She pawned and set to
      sale the crown jewels." --Milton.

   Crown land, land belonging to the crown, that is, to the
      sovereign.

   Crown law, the law which governs criminal prosecutions.
      [Eng.]

   Crown lawyer, one employed by the crown, as in criminal
      cases. [Eng.]

   Crown octavo. See under Paper.

   Crown office. See in the Vocabulary.

   Crown paper. See under Paper.

   Crown piece. See in the Vocabulary.

   Crown Prince, the heir apparent to a crown or throne.

   Crown saw. See in the Vocabulary.

   Crown scab (Far.), a cancerous sore formed round the
      corners of a horse's hoof.

   Crown sheet, the flat plate which forms the top of the
      furnace or fire box of an internally fired steam boiler.
      

   Crown shell. (Zool.) See Acorn-shell.

   Crown side. See Crown office.

   Crown tax (Eccl. Hist.), a golden crown, or its value,
      which was required annually from the Jews by the king of
      Syria, in the time of the Maccabees. --1 Macc. x. 20.

   Crown wheel. See in the Vocabulary.

   Crown work. See in the Vocabulary.

   Pleas of the crown (Engl. law), criminal actions.
      [1913 Webster]
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