formica rufa


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Horse \Horse\ (h[^o]rs), n. [AS. hors; akin to OS. hros, D. &
   OHG. ros, G. ross, Icel. hross; and perh. to L. currere to
   run, E. course, current Cf. Walrus.]
   1. (Zool.) A hoofed quadruped of the genus Equus;
      especially, the domestic horse (Equus caballus), which
      was domesticated in Egypt and Asia at a very early period.
      It has six broad molars, on each side of each jaw, with
      six incisors, and two canine teeth, both above and below.
      The mares usually have the canine teeth rudimentary or
      wanting. The horse differs from the true asses, in having
      a long, flowing mane, and the tail bushy to the base.
      Unlike the asses it has callosities, or chestnuts, on all
      its legs. The horse excels in strength, speed, docility,
      courage, and nobleness of character, and is used for
      drawing, carrying, bearing a rider, and like purposes.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: Many varieties, differing in form, size, color, gait,
         speed, etc., are known, but all are believed to have
         been derived from the same original species. It is
         supposed to have been a native of the plains of Central
         Asia, but the wild species from which it was derived is
         not certainly known. The feral horses of America are
         domestic horses that have run wild; and it is probably
         true that most of those of Asia have a similar origin.
         Some of the true wild Asiatic horses do, however,
         approach the domestic horse in several characteristics.
         Several species of fossil (Equus) are known from the
         later Tertiary formations of Europe and America. The
         fossil species of other genera of the family
         Equid[ae] are also often called horses, in general
         sense.
         [1913 Webster]

   2. The male of the genus Equus, in distinction from the
      female or male; usually, a castrated male.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. Mounted soldiery; cavalry; -- used without the plural
      termination; as, a regiment of horse; -- distinguished
      from foot.
      [1913 Webster]

            The armies were appointed, consisting of twenty-five
            thousand horse and foot.              --Bacon.
      [1913 Webster]

   4. A frame with legs, used to support something; as, a
      clotheshorse, a sawhorse, etc.
      [1913 Webster]

   5. A frame of timber, shaped like a horse, on which soldiers
      were made to ride for punishment.
      [1913 Webster]

   6. Anything, actual or figurative, on which one rides as on a
      horse; a hobby.
      [1913 Webster]

   7. (Mining) A mass of earthy matter, or rock of the same
      character as the wall rock, occurring in the course of a
      vein, as of coal or ore; hence, to take horse -- said of a
      vein -- is to divide into branches for a distance.
      [1913 Webster]

   8. (Naut.)
      (a) See Footrope, a.
      (b) A breastband for a leadsman.
      (c) An iron bar for a sheet traveler to slide upon.
      (d) A jackstay. --W. C. Russell. --Totten.
          [1913 Webster]

   9. (Student Slang)
      (a) A translation or other illegitimate aid in study or
          examination; -- called also trot, pony, Dobbin.
      (b) Horseplay; tomfoolery.
          [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

   10. heroin. [slang]
       [PJC]

   11. horsepower. [Colloq. contraction]
       [PJC]

   Note: Horse is much used adjectively and in composition to
         signify of, or having to do with, a horse or horses,
         like a horse, etc.; as, horse collar, horse dealer or
         horse?dealer, horsehoe, horse jockey; and hence, often
         in the sense of strong, loud, coarse, etc.; as,
         horselaugh, horse nettle or horse-nettle, horseplay,
         horse ant, etc.
         [1913 Webster]

   Black horse, Blood horse, etc. See under Black, etc.

   Horse aloes, caballine aloes.

   Horse ant (Zool.), a large ant (Formica rufa); -- called
      also horse emmet.

   Horse artillery, that portion of the artillery in which the
      cannoneers are mounted, and which usually serves with the
      cavalry; flying artillery.

   Horse balm (Bot.), a strong-scented labiate plant
      (Collinsonia Canadensis), having large leaves and
      yellowish flowers.

   Horse bean (Bot.), a variety of the English or Windsor bean
      (Faba vulgaris), grown for feeding horses.

   Horse boat, a boat for conveying horses and cattle, or a
      boat propelled by horses.

   Horse bot. (Zool.) See Botfly, and Bots.

   Horse box, a railroad car for transporting valuable horses,
      as hunters. [Eng.]

   Horse breaker or Horse trainer, one employed in subduing
      or training horses for use.

   Horse car.
       (a) A railroad car drawn by horses. See under Car.
       (b) A car fitted for transporting horses.

   Horse cassia (Bot.), a leguminous plant ({Cassia
      Javanica}), bearing long pods, which contain a black,
      catharic pulp, much used in the East Indies as a horse
      medicine.

   Horse cloth, a cloth to cover a horse.

   Horse conch (Zool.), a large, spiral, marine shell of the
      genus Triton. See Triton.

   Horse courser.
       (a) One that runs horses, or keeps horses for racing.
           --Johnson.
       (b) A dealer in horses. [Obs.] --Wiseman.

   Horse crab (Zool.), the Limulus; -- called also
      horsefoot, horsehoe crab, and king crab.

   Horse crevall['e] (Zool.), the cavally.

   Horse emmet (Zool.), the horse ant.

   Horse finch (Zool.), the chaffinch. [Prov. Eng.]

   Horse gentian (Bot.), fever root.

   Horse iron (Naut.), a large calking iron.

   Horse latitudes, a space in the North Atlantic famous for
      calms and baffling winds, being between the westerly winds
      of higher latitudes and the trade winds. --Ham. Nav.
      Encyc.

   Horse mackrel. (Zool.)
       (a) The common tunny (Orcynus thunnus), found on the
           Atlantic coast of Europe and America, and in the
           Mediterranean.
       (b) The bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix).
       (c) The scad.
       (d) The name is locally applied to various other fishes,
           as the California hake, the black candlefish, the
           jurel, the bluefish, etc.

   Horse marine (Naut.), an awkward, lubbery person; one of a
      mythical body of marine cavalry. [Slang]

   Horse mussel (Zool.), a large, marine mussel ({Modiola
      modiolus}), found on the northern shores of Europe and
      America.

   Horse nettle (Bot.), a coarse, prickly, American herb, the
      Solanum Carolinense.

   Horse parsley. (Bot.) See Alexanders.

   Horse purslain (Bot.), a coarse fleshy weed of tropical
      America (Trianthema monogymnum).

   Horse race, a race by horses; a match of horses in running
      or trotting.

   Horse racing, the practice of racing with horses.

   Horse railroad, a railroad on which the cars are drawn by
      horses; -- in England, and sometimes in the United States,
      called a tramway.

   Horse run (Civil Engin.), a device for drawing loaded
      wheelbarrows up an inclined plane by horse power.

   Horse sense, strong common sense. [Colloq. U.S.]

   Horse soldier, a cavalryman.

   Horse sponge (Zool.), a large, coarse, commercial sponge
      (Spongia equina).

   Horse stinger (Zool.), a large dragon fly. [Prov. Eng.]

   Horse sugar (Bot.), a shrub of the southern part of the
      United States (Symplocos tinctoria), whose leaves are
      sweet, and good for fodder.

   Horse tick (Zool.), a winged, dipterous insect ({Hippobosca
      equina}), which troubles horses by biting them, and
      sucking their blood; -- called also horsefly, {horse
      louse}, and forest fly.

   Horse vetch (Bot.), a plant of the genus Hippocrepis
      (Hippocrepis comosa), cultivated for the beauty of its
      flowers; -- called also horsehoe vetch, from the
      peculiar shape of its pods.

   Iron horse, a locomotive. [Colloq.]

   Salt horse, the sailor's name for salt beef.

   To look a gift horse in the mouth, to examine the mouth of
      a horse which has been received as a gift, in order to
      ascertain his age; -- hence, to accept favors in a
      critical and thankless spirit. --Lowell.

   To take horse.
       (a) To set out on horseback. --Macaulay.
       (b) To be covered, as a mare.
       (c) See definition 7 (above).
           [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Wood \Wood\, n. [OE. wode, wude, AS. wudu, wiodu; akin to OHG.
   witu, Icel. vi?r, Dan. & Sw. ved wood, and probably to Ir. &
   Gael. fiodh, W. gwydd trees, shrubs.]
   [1913 Webster]
   1. A large and thick collection of trees; a forest or grove;
      -- frequently used in the plural.
      [1913 Webster]

            Light thickens, and the crow
            Makes wing to the rooky wood.         --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. The substance of trees and the like; the hard fibrous
      substance which composes the body of a tree and its
      branches, and which is covered by the bark; timber. "To
      worship their own work in wood and stone for gods."
      --Milton.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. (Bot.) The fibrous material which makes up the greater
      part of the stems and branches of trees and shrubby
      plants, and is found to a less extent in herbaceous stems.
      It consists of elongated tubular or needle-shaped cells of
      various kinds, usually interwoven with the shinning bands
      called silver grain.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: Wood consists chiefly of the carbohydrates cellulose
         and lignin, which are isomeric with starch.
         [1913 Webster]

   4. Trees cut or sawed for the fire or other uses.
      [1913 Webster]

   Wood acid, Wood vinegar (Chem.), a complex acid liquid
      obtained in the dry distillation of wood, and containing
      large quantities of acetic acid; hence, specifically,
      acetic acid. Formerly called pyroligneous acid.

   Wood anemone (Bot.), a delicate flower (Anemone nemorosa)
      of early spring; -- also called windflower. See Illust.
      of Anemone.

   Wood ant (Zool.), a large ant (Formica rufa) which lives
      in woods and forests, and constructs large nests.

   Wood apple (Bot.). See Elephant apple, under Elephant.
      

   Wood baboon (Zool.), the drill.

   Wood betony. (Bot.)
      (a) Same as Betony.
      (b) The common American lousewort ({Pedicularis
          Canadensis}), a low perennial herb with yellowish or
          purplish flowers.

   Wood borer. (Zool.)
      (a) The larva of any one of numerous species of boring
          beetles, esp. elaters, longicorn beetles,
          buprestidans, and certain weevils. See Apple borer,
          under Apple, and Pine weevil, under Pine.
      (b) The larva of any one of various species of
          lepidopterous insects, especially of the clearwing
          moths, as the peach-tree borer (see under Peach),
          and of the goat moths.
      (c) The larva of various species of hymenopterous of the
          tribe Urocerata. See Tremex.
      (d) Any one of several bivalve shells which bore in wood,
          as the teredos, and species of Xylophaga.
      (e) Any one of several species of small Crustacea, as the
          Limnoria, and the boring amphipod ({Chelura
          terebrans}).

   Wood carpet, a kind of floor covering made of thin pieces
      of wood secured to a flexible backing, as of cloth.
      --Knight.

   Wood cell (Bot.), a slender cylindrical or prismatic cell
      usually tapering to a point at both ends. It is the
      principal constituent of woody fiber.

   Wood choir, the choir, or chorus, of birds in the woods.
      [Poetic] --Coleridge.

   Wood coal, charcoal; also, lignite, or brown coal.

   Wood cricket (Zool.), a small European cricket ({Nemobius
      sylvestris}).

   Wood culver (Zool.), the wood pigeon.

   Wood cut, an engraving on wood; also, a print from such an
      engraving.

   Wood dove (Zool.), the stockdove.

   Wood drink, a decoction or infusion of medicinal woods.

   Wood duck (Zool.)
      (a) A very beautiful American duck (Aix sponsa). The
          male has a large crest, and its plumage is varied with
          green, purple, black, white, and red. It builds its
          nest in trees, whence the name. Called also {bridal
          duck}, summer duck, and wood widgeon.
      (b) The hooded merganser.
      (c) The Australian maned goose (Chlamydochen jubata).

   Wood echo, an echo from the wood.

   Wood engraver.
      (a) An engraver on wood.
      (b) (Zool.) Any of several species of small beetles whose
          larvae bore beneath the bark of trees, and excavate
          furrows in the wood often more or less resembling
          coarse engravings; especially, {Xyleborus
          xylographus}.

   Wood engraving.
      (a) The act or art engraving on wood; xylography.
      (b) An engraving on wood; a wood cut; also, a print from
          such an engraving.

   Wood fern. (Bot.) See Shield fern, under Shield.

   Wood fiber.
      (a) (Bot.) Fibrovascular tissue.
      (b) Wood comminuted, and reduced to a powdery or dusty
          mass.

   Wood fretter (Zool.), any one of numerous species of
      beetles whose larvae bore in the wood, or beneath the
      bark, of trees.

   Wood frog (Zool.), a common North American frog ({Rana
      sylvatica}) which lives chiefly in the woods, except
      during the breeding season. It is drab or yellowish brown,
      with a black stripe on each side of the head.

   Wood germander. (Bot.) See under Germander.

   Wood god, a fabled sylvan deity.

   Wood grass. (Bot.) See under Grass.

   Wood grouse. (Zool.)
      (a) The capercailzie.
      (b) The spruce partridge. See under Spruce.

   Wood guest (Zool.), the ringdove. [Prov. Eng.]

   Wood hen. (Zool.)
      (a) Any one of several species of Old World short-winged
          rails of the genus Ocydromus, including the weka and
          allied species.
      (b) The American woodcock.

   Wood hoopoe (Zool.), any one of several species of Old
      World arboreal birds belonging to Irrisor and allied
      genera. They are closely allied to the common hoopoe, but
      have a curved beak, and a longer tail.

   Wood ibis (Zool.), any one of several species of large,
      long-legged, wading birds belonging to the genus
      Tantalus. The head and neck are naked or scantily
      covered with feathers. The American wood ibis ({Tantalus
      loculator}) is common in Florida.

   Wood lark (Zool.), a small European lark ({Alauda
      arborea}), which, like, the skylark, utters its notes
      while on the wing. So called from its habit of perching on
      trees.

   Wood laurel (Bot.), a European evergreen shrub ({Daphne
      Laureola}).

   Wood leopard (Zool.), a European spotted moth ({Zeuzera
      aesculi}) allied to the goat moth. Its large fleshy larva
      bores in the wood of the apple, pear, and other fruit
      trees.

   Wood lily (Bot.), the lily of the valley.

   Wood lock (Naut.), a piece of wood close fitted and
      sheathed with copper, in the throating or score of the
      pintle, to keep the rudder from rising.

   Wood louse (Zool.)
      (a) Any one of numerous species of terrestrial isopod
          Crustacea belonging to Oniscus, Armadillo, and
          related genera. See Sow bug, under Sow, and {Pill
          bug}, under Pill.
      (b) Any one of several species of small, wingless,
          pseudoneuropterous insects of the family Psocidae,
          which live in the crevices of walls and among old
          books and papers. Some of the species are called also
          book lice, and deathticks, or deathwatches.

   Wood mite (Zool.), any one of numerous small mites of the
      family Oribatidae. They are found chiefly in woods, on
      tree trunks and stones.

   Wood mote. (Eng. Law)
      (a) Formerly, the forest court.
      (b) The court of attachment.

   Wood nettle. (Bot.) See under Nettle.

   Wood nightshade (Bot.), woody nightshade.

   Wood nut (Bot.), the filbert.

   Wood nymph. (a) A nymph inhabiting the woods; a fabled
      goddess of the woods; a dryad. "The wood nymphs, decked
      with daisies trim." --Milton.
      (b) (Zool.) Any one of several species of handsomely
          colored moths belonging to the genus Eudryas. The
          larvae are bright-colored, and some of the species, as
          Eudryas grata, and Eudryas unio, feed on the
          leaves of the grapevine.
      (c) (Zool.) Any one of several species of handsomely
          colored South American humming birds belonging to the
          genus Thalurania. The males are bright blue, or
          green and blue.

   Wood offering, wood burnt on the altar.
      [1913 Webster]

            We cast the lots . . . for the wood offering. --Neh.
                                                  x. 34.
      [1913 Webster]

   Wood oil (Bot.), a resinous oil obtained from several East
      Indian trees of the genus Dipterocarpus, having
      properties similar to those of copaiba, and sometimes
      substituted for it. It is also used for mixing paint. See
      Gurjun.

   Wood opal (Min.), a striped variety of coarse opal, having
      some resemblance to wood.

   Wood paper, paper made of wood pulp. See Wood pulp,
      below.

   Wood pewee (Zool.), a North American tyrant flycatcher
      (Contopus virens). It closely resembles the pewee, but
      is smaller.

   Wood pie (Zool.), any black and white woodpecker,
      especially the European great spotted woodpecker.

   Wood pigeon. (Zool.)
      (a) Any one of numerous species of Old World pigeons
          belonging to Palumbus and allied genera of the
          family Columbidae.
      (b) The ringdove.

   Wood puceron (Zool.), a plant louse.

   Wood pulp (Technol.), vegetable fiber obtained from the
      poplar and other white woods, and so softened by digestion
      with a hot solution of alkali that it can be formed into
      sheet paper, etc. It is now produced on an immense scale.
      

   Wood quail (Zool.), any one of several species of East
      Indian crested quails belonging to Rollulus and allied
      genera, as the red-crested wood quail ({Rollulus
      roulroul}), the male of which is bright green, with a long
      crest of red hairlike feathers.

   Wood rabbit (Zool.), the cottontail.

   Wood rat (Zool.), any one of several species of American
      wild rats of the genus Neotoma found in the Southern
      United States; -- called also bush rat. The Florida wood
      rat (Neotoma Floridana) is the best-known species.

   Wood reed grass (Bot.), a tall grass (Cinna arundinacea)
      growing in moist woods.

   Wood reeve, the steward or overseer of a wood. [Eng.]

   Wood rush (Bot.), any plant of the genus Luzula,
      differing from the true rushes of the genus Juncus
      chiefly in having very few seeds in each capsule.

   Wood sage (Bot.), a name given to several labiate plants of
      the genus Teucrium. See Germander.

   Wood screw, a metal screw formed with a sharp thread, and
      usually with a slotted head, for insertion in wood.

   Wood sheldrake (Zool.), the hooded merganser.

   Wood shock (Zool.), the fisher. See Fisher, 2.

   Wood shrike (Zool.), any one of numerous species of Old
      World singing birds belonging to Grallina,
      Collyricincla, Prionops, and allied genera, common in
      India and Australia. They are allied to the true shrikes,
      but feed upon both insects and berries.

   Wood snipe. (Zool.)
      (a) The American woodcock.
      (b) An Asiatic snipe (Gallinago nemoricola).

   Wood soot, soot from burnt wood.

   Wood sore. (Zool.) See Cuckoo spit, under Cuckoo.

   Wood sorrel (Bot.), a plant of the genus Oxalis ({Oxalis
      Acetosella}), having an acid taste. See Illust. (a) of
      Shamrock.

   Wood spirit. (Chem.) See Methyl alcohol, under Methyl.
      

   Wood stamp, a carved or engraved block or stamp of wood,
      for impressing figures or colors on fabrics.

   Wood star (Zool.), any one of several species of small
      South American humming birds belonging to the genus
      Calothorax. The male has a brilliant gorget of blue,
      purple, and other colors.

   Wood sucker (Zool.), the yaffle.

   Wood swallow (Zool.), any one of numerous species of Old
      World passerine birds belonging to the genus Artamus and
      allied genera of the family Artamidae. They are common
      in the East Indies, Asia, and Australia. In form and
      habits they resemble swallows, but in structure they
      resemble shrikes. They are usually black above and white
      beneath.

   Wood tapper (Zool.), any woodpecker.

   Wood tar. See under Tar.

   Wood thrush, (Zool.)
      (a) An American thrush (Turdus mustelinus) noted for the
          sweetness of its song. See under Thrush.
      (b) The missel thrush.

   Wood tick. See in Vocabulary.

   Wood tin. (Min.). See Cassiterite.

   Wood titmouse (Zool.), the goldcgest.

   Wood tortoise (Zool.), the sculptured tortoise. See under
      Sculptured.

   Wood vine (Bot.), the white bryony.

   Wood vinegar. See Wood acid, above.

   Wood warbler. (Zool.)
      (a) Any one of numerous species of American warblers of
          the genus Dendroica. See Warbler.
      (b) A European warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix); --
          called also green wren, wood wren, and {yellow
          wren}.

   Wood worm (Zool.), a larva that bores in wood; a wood
      borer.

   Wood wren. (Zool.)
      (a) The wood warbler.
      (b) The willow warbler.
          [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Hill \Hill\, n. [OE. hil, hul, AS. hyll; akin to OD. hille, hil,
   L. collis, and prob. to E. haulm, holm, and column. Cf. 2d
   Holm.]
   1. A natural elevation of land, or a mass of earth rising
      above the common level of the surrounding land; an
      eminence less than a mountain.
      [1913 Webster]

            Every mountain and hill shall be made low. --Is. xl.
                                                  4.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. The earth raised about the roots of a plant or cluster of
      plants. [U. S.] See Hill, v. t.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. A single cluster or group of plants growing close
      together, and having the earth heaped up about them; as, a
      hill of corn or potatoes. [U. S.]
      [1913 Webster]

   Hill ant (Zool.), a common ant (Formica rufa), of Europe
      and America, which makes mounds or ant-hills over its
      nests.

   Hill myna (Zool.), one of several species of birds of
      India, of the genus Gracula, and allied to the
      starlings. They are easily taught to speak many words.
      [Written also hill mynah.] See Myna.

   Hill partridge (Zool.), a partridge of the genus
      Aborophila, of which numerous species in habit Southern
      Asia and the East Indies.

   Hill tit (Zool.), one of numerous species of small Asiatic
      singing birds of the family Leiotrichid[ae]. Many are
      beautifully colored.
      [1913 Webster]
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