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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Justiciary \Jus*ti"ci*a*ry\, n. [Cf. LL. justitiarius, F. justicier. See Justice.] (Old Eng. Law) An old name for the judges of the higher English courts. [1913 Webster] Note: The chief justiciary, or justiciar, in early English history, was not only the chief justice of the kingdom, but also ex officio regent in the king's absence. [1913 Webster] Court of justiciary (Scots Law), the supreme criminal court, having jurisdiction over the whole of Scotland. Justico