mechanical powers


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Power \Pow"er\, n. [OE. pouer, poer, OF. poeir, pooir, F.
   pouvoir, n. & v., fr. LL. potere, for L. posse, potesse, to
   be able, to have power. See Possible, Potent, and cf.
   Posse comitatus.]
   1. Ability to act, regarded as latent or inherent; the
      faculty of doing or performing something; capacity for
      action or performance; capability of producing an effect,
      whether physical or moral: potency; might; as, a man of
      great power; the power of capillary attraction; money
      gives power. "One next himself in power, and next in
      crime." --Milton.
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   2. Ability, regarded as put forth or exerted; strength,
      force, or energy in action; as, the power of steam in
      moving an engine; the power of truth, or of argument, in
      producing conviction; the power of enthusiasm. "The power
      of fancy." --Shak.
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   3. Capacity of undergoing or suffering; fitness to be acted
      upon; susceptibility; -- called also passive power; as,
      great power of endurance.
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            Power, then, is active and passive; faculty is
            active power or capacity; capacity is passive power.
                                                  --Sir W.
                                                  Hamilton.
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   4. The exercise of a faculty; the employment of strength; the
      exercise of any kind of control; influence; dominion;
      sway; command; government.
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            Power is no blessing in itself but when it is
            employed to protect the innocent.     --Swift.
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   5. The agent exercising an ability to act; an individual
      invested with authority; an institution, or government,
      which exercises control; as, the great powers of Europe;
      hence, often, a superhuman agent; a spirit; a divinity.
      "The powers of darkness." --Milton.
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            And the powers of the heavens shall be shaken.
                                                  --Matt. xxiv.
                                                  29.
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   6. A military or naval force; an army or navy; a great host.
      --Spenser.
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            Never such a power . . .
            Was levied in the body of a land.     --Shak.
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   7. A large quantity; a great number; as, a power o? good
      things. [Colloq.] --Richardson.
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   8. (Mech.)
      (a) The rate at which mechanical energy is exerted or
          mechanical work performed, as by an engine or other
          machine, or an animal, working continuously; as, an
          engine of twenty horse power.
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   Note: The English unit of power used most commonly is the
         horse power. See Horse power.
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      (b) A mechanical agent; that from which useful mechanical
          energy is derived; as, water power; steam power; hand
          power, etc.
      (c) Applied force; force producing motion or pressure; as,
          the power applied at one and of a lever to lift a
          weight at the other end.
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   Note: This use in mechanics, of power as a synonym for force,
         is improper and is becoming obsolete.
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      (d) A machine acted upon by an animal, and serving as a
          motor to drive other machinery; as, a dog power.
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   Note: Power is used adjectively, denoting, driven, or adapted
         to be driven, by machinery, and not actuated directly
         by the hand or foot; as, a power lathe; a power loom; a
         power press.
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   9. (Math.) The product arising from the multiplication of a
      number into itself; as, a square is the second power, and
      a cube is third power, of a number.
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   10. (Metaph.) Mental or moral ability to act; one of the
       faculties which are possessed by the mind or soul; as,
       the power of thinking, reasoning, judging, willing,
       fearing, hoping, etc. --I. Watts.
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             The guiltiness of my mind, the sudden surprise of
             my powers, drove the grossness . . . into a
             received belief.                     --Shak.
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   11. (Optics) The degree to which a lens, mirror, or any
       optical instrument, magnifies; in the telescope, and
       usually in the microscope, the number of times it
       multiplies, or augments, the apparent diameter of an
       object; sometimes, in microscopes, the number of times it
       multiplies the apparent surface.
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   12. (Law) An authority enabling a person to dispose of an
       interest vested either in himself or in another person;
       ownership by appointment. --Wharton.
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   13. Hence, vested authority to act in a given case; as, the
       business was referred to a committee with power.
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   Note: Power may be predicated of inanimate agents, like the
         winds and waves, electricity and magnetism,
         gravitation, etc., or of animal and intelligent beings;
         and when predicated of these beings, it may indicate
         physical, mental, or moral ability or capacity.
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   Mechanical powers. See under Mechanical.

   Power loom, or Power press. See Def. 8
       (d), note.

   Power of attorney. See under Attorney.

   Power of a point (relative to a given curve) (Geom.), the
      result of substituting the coordinates of any point in
      that expression which being put equal to zero forms the
      equation of the curve; as, x^2 + y^2 - 100 is the
      power of the point x, y, relative to the circle x^2 +
      y^2 - 100 = 0.
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.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Mechanical \Me*chan"ic*al\, a. [From Mechanic, a.]
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   1. Pertaining to, governed by, or in accordance with,
      mechanics, or the laws of motion; pertaining to the
      quantitative relations of force and matter on a
      macroscopic scale, as distinguished from mental,
      vital, chemical, electrical, electronic, atomic
      etc.; as, mechanical principles; a mechanical theory;
      especially, using only the interactions of solid parts
      against each other; as mechanical brakes, in contrast to
      hydraulic brakes.
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   2. Of or pertaining to a machine or to machinery or tools;
      made or formed by a machine or with tools; as, mechanical
      precision; mechanical products.
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            We have also divers mechanical arts.  --Bacon.
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   3. Done as if by a machine; uninfluenced by will or emotion;
      proceeding automatically, or by habit, without special
      intention or reflection; as, mechanical singing;
      mechanical verses; mechanical service.
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   4. Made and operated by interaction of forces without a
      directing intelligence; as, a mechanical universe.
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   5. Obtained by trial, by measurements, etc.; approximate;
      empirical. See the 2d Note under Geometric.
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   Mechanical effect, effective power; useful work exerted, as
      by a machine, in a definite time.

   Mechanical engineering. See the Note under Engineering.
      

   Mechanical maneuvers (Mil.), the application of mechanical
      appliances to the mounting, dismounting, and moving of
      artillery. --Farrow.

   Mechanical philosophy, the principles of mechanics applied
      to the investigation of physical phenomena.

   Mechanical powers, certain simple instruments, such as the
      lever and its modifications (the wheel and axle and the
      pulley), the inclined plane with its modifications (the
      screw and the wedge), which convert a small force acting
      through a great space into a great force acting through a
      small space, or vice versa, and are used separately or in
      combination.

   Mechanical solution (Math.), a solution of a problem by any
      art or contrivance not strictly geometrical, as by means
      of the ruler and compasses, or other instruments.
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