napoleon


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Napoleon \Napoleon\, Napoleon I \Napoleon
I.\(n[aum]*p[=o]"l[=e]*[u^]n; F. pron.
   n[aum]`p[=o]`l[=a]`[o^]N")
   Napoleon Bonaparte (or Buonaparte), Born at Ajaccio, Corsica,
   Aug. 15, 1766, or, according to some, at Corte, Jan. 7, 1768;
   died at Longwood, St. Helena, May 5, 1821. Emperor of the
   French 1804-14. He was the son of Charles Marie Bonaparte and
   Laetitia Ramolino; studied at the military school of Brienne
   1779-84, and at that of Paris 1784-85; and received a
   lieutenant's commission in the French army in 1785. He
   opposed the patriot movement under Paoli in Corsica in 1793;
   commanded the artillery in the attack on Toulon in the same
   year; served in the army in Italy in 1794; and, as second in
   command to Barras, subdued the revolt of the sections at
   Paris in Oct., 1795. He married Josephine de Beauharnais
   March 9, 1796. Toward the close of this month (March 27) he
   assumed command at Nice of the army in Italy, which he found
   opposed by the Austrians and the Sardinians. He began his
   campaign April 10, and, after defeating the Austrians at
   Montenotte (April 12), Millesimo (April 14), and Dego (April
   15), turned (April 15) against the Sardinians, whom he
   defeated at Ceva (April 20) and Mondovi (April 22), forcing
   them to sign the separate convention of Cherasco (April 29).
   In the following month he began an invasion of Lombardy, and
   by a brilliant series of victories, including those of Lodi
   (May 10) and Arcole (Nov. 15-17), expelled the Austrians from
   their possessions in the north of Italy, receiving the
   capitulation of Mantua, their last stronghold, Feb. 2, 1797.
   Crossing the Alps, he penetrated Styria as far as Leoben,
   where he dictated preliminaries of peace April 18. The
   definitive peace of Campo-Formio followed (Oct 17). By the
   treaty of Campo-Formio northern Italy was reconstructed in
   the interest of France, which furthermore acquired the
   Austrian Netherlands, and received a guarantee of the left
   bank of the Rhine. Campo-Formio destroyed the coalition
   against France, and put an end to the Revolutionary war on
   the Continent. The only enemy that remained to France was
   England. At the instance of Bonaparte the Directory adopted
   the plan of attacking the English in India, which involved
   the conquest of Egypt. Placed at the head of an expedition of
   about 85,000 men, he set sail from Toulon May 19, 1798;
   occupied Malta June 12; disembarked at Alexandria July 2; and
   defeated the Mamelukes in the decisive battle of the Pyramids
   July 21. He was master of Egypt, but the destruction of his
   fleet by Nelson in the battle of the Nile (Aug. 1) cut him
   off from France and doomed his expedition to failure.
   Nevertheless he undertook the subjugation of Syria, and
   stormed Jaffa March 7, 1799. Repulsed at Acre, the defense of
   which was supported by the English, he commenced a retreat to
   Egypt May 21. He inflicted a final defeat on the Turks at
   Abukir July 26; transferred the command in Egypt to Kl['e]ber
   Aug. 22; and, setting sail with two frigates, arrived in the
   harbor of Fr['e]jus Oct. 9. During his absence a new
   coalition had been formed against France, and the Directory
   saw its armies defeated, both on the Rhine and in Italy. With
   the assistance of his brother Lucien and of Siey[`e]s and
   Roger Ducos, he executed the coup d'etat of Brumaire, whereby
   he abolished the Directory and virtually made himself monarch
   under the title of first consul, holding office for a term of
   10 years. He crossed the Great St. Bernard in May, 1800, and
   restored the French ascendancy in Italy by the victory of
   Marengo (June 14), which, with that won by Moreau at
   Hohenlinden (Dec. 8), brought about the peace of Lun['e]ville
   (Feb. 9, 1801). The treaty of Lun['e]ville, which was based
   on that of Campo-Formio, destroyed the coalition, and
   restored peace on the Continent. He concluded the peace of
   Amiens with England March 27, 1802. After the peace of
   Lun['e]ville he commenced the legislative reconstruction of
   France, the public institutions of which had been either
   destroyed or thrown into confusion during the Revolution. To
   this period belong the restoration of the Roman Catholic
   Church bythe Concordat (concluded July 15, 1801), the
   restoration of higher education by the erection of the new
   university (May 1, 1802), and the establishment of the Legion
   of Honor (May 19, 1802): preparation had been previously made
   for the codification of the laws.
   He was made consul for life Aug. 2, 1802; executed the Duc
   d'Enghien March 21, 1804; was proclaimed hereditary emperor
   of the French May 18, 1804 (the coronation ceremony took
   place Dec. 2, 1804); and was crowned king of Italy May 26,
   1805. In the meantime England had been provoked into
   declaring war (May 18, 1803), and a coalition consisting of
   England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden was formed against
   France in 1806: Spain was allied with France. The victory of
   Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar (Oct. 21, 1805) followed
   the failure of the projected invasion of England. Breaking up
   his camp at Boulogne, he invaded Austria, occupied Vienna,
   and (Dec. 2, 1805) defeated the allied Russians and Austrians
   at Austerlitz. The Russians retired from the contest under a
   military Convention; the Austrians signed the peace of
   Presburg (Dec. 26, 1805); and the coalition was destroyed.
   His intervention in germany brought about the erection of the
   Confederation of the Rhine July 12, 1806. This confederation,
   which was placed under his protection, ultimately embraced
   nearly all the states of Germany except Austria and Prussia.
   Its erection, together with other provocation, caused Prnssia
   to mobilize its army in Aug., and Napoleon presently found
   himself opposed by a coalition with Prussia, Russia, and
   England as its principal members. He crushed the Prussian
   army at Jena and Auerst[aum]dt Oct. 14; entered Berlin Oct.
   27; fought the Russians and Prussians in the drawn battle of
   Eylau Feb. 7-8, 1807; defeated the Russians at the battle of
   Friedland June 14; and compelled both Russia and Prussia to
   conclude peace at Tilsit July 7 and 9, 1807, respectively.
   Russia became the ally of France; Prussia was deprived of
   nearly half her territory. Napoleon was now, perhaps, at the
   height of his power. The imperial title was no empty form. He
   was the head of a great confederacy of states. He had
   surrounded the imperial throne with subordinate thrones
   occupied by members of his own family. His stepson Eug[`e]ne
   de Beauharnais was viceroy of the kingdom of Italy in
   northern and central Italy; his brother Joseph was king of
   Naples in southern Italy; his brother Louis was king of
   Holland; his brother Jerome was king of Westphalia; his
   brother-in-law Murat was grandduke of Berg. The Confederation
   of the Rhine existed by virtue of his protection, and his
   troops occupied dismembered Prussia. He directed the policy
   of Europe.
   England alone, mistress of the seas, appeared to stand
   between him and universal dominion. England was safe from
   invasion, but she was vulnerable through her commerce.
   Napoleon undertook to starve her by closing the ports of the
   Continent against her commerce. This policy, known as "the
   Continental system," was inaugurated by the Berlin decree in
   1806, and was extended by the Milan decree in 1807. To
   further this policy he resolved to seize the maritime states
   of Portugal and Spain. His armies expelled the house of
   Braganza from Portugal, and Nov. 30, 1807, the French entered
   Lisbon. Under pretense of guarding the coast against the
   English, he quartered 80,000 troops in Spain, then in 1808
   enticed Ferdinand VII. and his father Charles IV. (who had
   recently abdicated) to Bayonne, extorted from both a
   renunciation of their claims, and placed his brother Joseph
   on the Spanish throne. An uprising of the Spaniards took
   place, followed by a popular insurrection in Portugal,
   movements which found response in Germany. The seizure of
   Spain and Portugal proved in the end a fatal error. The war
   which it kindled, known as the Peninsular war, drained him of
   his resources and placed an enemy in his rear when northern
   Europe rose against him in 1813. The English in 1808 landed
   an army in Portugal, whence they expelled the French, and
   penetrated into Spain. Napoleon, securing himself against
   Austria by a closer alliance with the czar Alexander at
   Erfurt (concluded Oct. 12, 1808), hastened in person to
   Spain. With 250,000 men, drove out the English, and entered
   Madrid (Dec. 4, 1808). He was recalled by the threatening
   attitude of Austria, against which he precipitated war in
   April, 1809. He occupied Vienna (May 13), was defeated by the
   archduke Charles at Aspern and Essling (May 21-22), defeated
   the archduke at Wagram (July 5-6), and concluded the peace of
   Sch["o]nbrunn Oct. 14, 1809. He divorced Josephine Dec. 16,
   1809, and married Maria Louisa of Austria March 11 (April 2),
   1810. He annexed the Papal States in 1809 (the Pope being
   carried prisoner to France), and Holland in 1810. The refusal
   of Alexander to carry out strictly the Continental system,
   which Napoleon himself evaded by the sale of licenses,
   brought on war with Russia. He crossed the Niemen June 24,
   1812; gained the victory of Borodino Sept. 7; and occupied
   Moscow Sept. 14. His proffer of truce was rejected by the
   Russians, and he was forced by the approach of winter to
   begin a retreat (Oct. 19). He was overtaken by the winter,
   and his army dwindled before the cold, hunger, and the enemy.
   He left the army in command of Murat Dec. 4, and hastened to
   Paris. Murat recrossed the Niemen Dec. 13, with 100,000 men),
   the remnant of the Grand Army of 600,000 veterans. The loss
   sustained by Napoleon in this campaign encouraged the
   defection of Prussia, which formed an alliance with Russia at
   Kalisch Feb. 28, 1813. Napoleon defeated the Russians and
   Prussians at L["u]tzen May 2, and at Bautzen May 20-21.
   Austria declared war Aug. 12, and Napoleon presently found
   himself opposed by a coalition of Russia, England, Sweden,
   Prussia, and Austria, of which the first three had been
   united since the previous year. He won his last great victory
   at Dresden Aug. 26-27, and lost the decisive battles of
   Leipsic (Oct. 16, 18, and 19), Laon (March 9-10, 1814), and
   Arcis-sur-Aube (March 20-21). On March 31 the Allies entered
   Paris. He was compelled to abdicate at Fontainebleau April
   11, but was allowed to retain the title of emperor, and
   received the island of Elba as a sovereign principality, and
   an aunual income of 2,000,000 francs. He arrived in Elba May
   4. The Congress of Vienna convened in Sept., 1814, for the
   purpose of restoring and regulating the relations between the
   powers disturbed by Napoleon. Encouraged by the quarrels
   which arose at the Congress between the Allies, Napoleon left
   Elba Feb. 26, 1816; landed at Cannes March 1; and entered
   Paris March 20, the troops sent against him, including Ney
   with his corps, having joined his standard. At the return of
   Napoleon, the Allies again took the field. He was finally
   overthrown at Waterloo June 18, 1815, and the Allies entered
   Paris a second time July 7. After futile attempts to escape
   to America, he surrendered himself to the British admiral
   Hotham at Rochefort July 16. By a unanimous resolve of the
   Allies he was transported as prisoner of war to St. Helena,
   where he arrived on Oct. 16, 1815, and where he was detained
   the rest of his life.

   Note: The spelling Buonaparte was used by Napoleon's father,
         and by Napoleon himself down to 1796, although the
         spelling Bonaparte occurs in early Italian documents.
         Aug. 15, 1769, is the commonly accepted date of
         Napoleon's birth, and Jan. 7, 1768 that of the birth of
         his brother Joseph. It has been said, but without good
         reason, that these dates were interchanged at the time
         of Napoleon's admission to the military school of
         Brienne in 1779, no candidate being eligible after 10
         years of age.
         --Century Dict. 1906
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Napoleon \Na*po"le*on\, n. [From the Emperor Napoleon 1.]
   1. A French gold coin of twenty francs, no longer minted or
      circulated. It bore the portrait of Napoleon I. or
      Napoleon III.
      [1913 Webster +PJC]

   2. (Card Playing)
      (a) A game in which each player holds five cards, the
          eldest hand stating the number of tricks he will bid
          to take, any subsequent player having the right to
          overbid him or a previous bidder, the highest bidder
          naming the trump and winning a number of points equal
          to his bid if he makes so many tricks, or losing the
          same number of points if he fails to make them.
      (b) A bid to take five tricks at napoleon. It is
          ordinarily the highest bid; but sometimes bids are
          allowed of wellington, or of blucher, to take five
          tricks, or pay double, or treble, if unsuccessful.
          [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

   3. A Napoleon gun.
      [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

   4. A kind of top boot of the middle of the 19th century.
      [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

   5. A shape and size of cigar. It is about seven inches long.
      [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

   6. a puff pastry confection, usually layered, with a filling
      of custard or cream, or sometimes jelly.
      [PJC]
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