organic chemistry


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Organic \Or*gan"ic\ ([^o]r*g[a^]n"[i^]k), a. [L. organicus, Gr.
   'organiko`s: cf. F. organique.]
   1. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to an organ or its functions, or
      to objects composed of organs; consisting of organs, or
      containing them; as, the organic structure of animals and
      plants; exhibiting characters peculiar to living
      organisms; as, organic bodies, organic life, organic
      remains. Cf. Inorganic.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. Produced by the organs; as, organic pleasure. [R.]
      [1913 Webster]

   3. Instrumental; acting as instruments of nature or of art to
      a certain destined function or end. [R.]
      [1913 Webster]

            Those organic arts which enable men to discourse and
            write perspicuously.                  --Milton.
      [1913 Webster]

   4. Forming a whole composed of organs. Hence: Of or
      pertaining to a system of organs; inherent in, or
      resulting from, a certain organization; as, an organic
      government; his love of truth was not inculcated, but
      organic.
      [1913 Webster]

   5. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to compounds which are
      derivatives of hydrocarbons; pertaining to, or denoting,
      any one of a large series of carbon-containing compounds
      which are related to the carbon compounds produced by
      biological processes (such as methane, oils, fats, sugars,
      alcohols, ethers, proteins, etc.) and include many
      substances of artificial production which may or may not
      occur in animals or plants; -- contrasted with
      inorganic.

   Note: Borderline cases exist which may be classified as
         either organic or inorganic, such as carbon
         terachloride (which may be viewed as a derivative of
         methane), but in general a compound must have a carbon
         with a hydrogen atom or another carbon atom attached to
         it to be viewed as truly organic, i.e. included in the
         subject matter of organic chemistry.
         [1913 Webster +PJC]

   Note: The principles of organic and inorganic chemistry are
         identical; but the enormous number and the completeness
         of related series of organic compounds, together with
         their remarkable facility of exchange and substitution,
         offer an illustration of chemical reaction and homology
         not to be paralleled in inorganic chemistry.
         [1913 Webster]

   Organic analysis (Chem.), the analysis of organic
      compounds, concerned chiefly with the determination of
      carbon as carbon dioxide, hydrogen as water, oxygen as the
      difference between the sum of the others and 100 per cent,
      and nitrogen as free nitrogen, ammonia, or nitric oxide;
      -- formerly called ultimate analysis, in distinction from
      proximate analysis.

   Organic chemistry. See under Chemistry.

   Organic compounds. (Chem.) Chemical substances which are
      organic[5]. See Carbon compounds, under Carbon.

   Organic description of a curve (Geom.), the description of
      a curve on a plane by means of instruments. --Brande & C.

   Organic disease (Med.), a disease attended with morbid
      changes in the structure of the organs of the body or in
      the composition of its fluids; -- opposed to {functional
      disease}.

   Organic electricity. See under Electricity.

   Organic law or Organic laws, a law or system of laws, or
      declaration of principles fundamental to the existence and
      organization of a political or other association; a
      constitution.

   Organic stricture (Med.), a contraction of one of the
      natural passages of the body produced by structural
      changes in its walls, as distinguished from a {spasmodic
      stricture}, which is due to muscular contraction.
      [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Chemistry \Chem"is*try\ (k[e^]m"[i^]s*tr[y^]; 277), n. [From
   Chemist. See Alchemy.]
   1. That branch of science which treats of the composition of
      substances, and of the changes which they undergo in
      consequence of alterations in the constitution of the
      molecules, which depend upon variations of the number,
      kind, or mode of arrangement, of the constituent atoms.
      These atoms are not assumed to be indivisible, but merely
      the finest grade of subdivision hitherto attained.
      Chemistry deals with the changes in the composition and
      constitution of molecules. See Atom, Molecule.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: Historically, chemistry is an outgrowth of alchemy (or
         alchemistry), with which it was anciently identified.
         [1913 Webster]

   2. An application of chemical theory and method to the
      consideration of some particular subject; as, the
      chemistry of iron; the chemistry of indigo.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. A treatise on chemistry.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: This word and its derivatives were formerly written
         with y, and sometimes with i, instead of e, in the
         first syllable, chymistry, chymist, chymical, etc., or
         chimistry, chimist, chimical, etc.; and the
         pronunciation was conformed to the orthography.
         [1913 Webster]

   Inorganic chemistry, that which treats of inorganic or
      mineral substances.

   Organic chemistry, that which treats of the substances
      which form the structure of organized beings and their
      products, whether animal or vegetable; -- called also
      chemistry of the carbon compounds. There is no
      fundamental difference between organic and inorganic
      chemistry.

   Physiological chemistry, the chemistry of the organs and
      tissues of the body, and of the various physiological
      processes incident to life.

   Practical chemistry, or Applied chemistry, that which
      treats of the modes of manufacturing the products of
      chemistry that are useful in the arts, of their
      applications to economical purposes, and of the conditions
      essential to their best use.

   Pure chemistry, the consideration of the facts and theories
      of chemistry in their purely scientific relations, without
      necessary reference to their practical applications or
      mere utility.
      [1913 Webster]
Feedback Form