From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Pole \Pole\, n. [Cf. G. Pole a Pole, Polen Poland.]
   A native or inhabitant of Poland; a Polander.
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Pole \Pole\, n. [As. p[=a]l, L. palus, akin to pangere to make
   fast. Cf. Pale a stake, Pact.]
   1. A long, slender piece of wood; a tall, slender piece of
      timber; the stem of a small tree whose branches have been
      removed; as, specifically:
      (a) A carriage pole, a wooden bar extending from the front
          axle of a carriage between the wheel horses, by which
          the carriage is guided and held back.
      (b) A flag pole, a pole on which a flag is supported.
      (c) A Maypole. See Maypole.
      (d) A barber's pole, a pole painted in stripes, used as a
          sign by barbers and hairdressers.
      (e) A pole on which climbing beans, hops, or other vines,
          are trained.
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   2. A measuring stick; also, a measure of length equal to 5?
      yards, or a square measure equal to 30? square yards; a
      rod; a perch. --Bacon.
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   Pole bean (Bot.), any kind of bean which is customarily
      trained on poles, as the scarlet runner or the Lima bean.

   Pole flounder (Zool.), a large deep-water flounder
      (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus), native of the northern
      coasts of Europe and America, and much esteemed as a food
      fish; -- called also craig flounder, and pole fluke.

   Pole lathe, a simple form of lathe, or a substitute for a
      lathe, in which the work is turned by means of a cord
      passing around it, one end being fastened to the treadle,
      and the other to an elastic pole above.

   Pole mast (Naut.), a mast formed from a single piece or
      from a single tree.

   Pole of a lens (Opt.), the point where the principal axis
      meets the surface.

   Pole plate (Arch.), a horizontal timber resting on the
      tiebeams of a roof and receiving the ends of the rafters.
      It differs from the plate in not resting on the wall.
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Pole \Pole\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Poled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   1. To furnish with poles for support; as, to pole beans or
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   2. To convey on poles; as, to pole hay into a barn.
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   3. To impel by a pole or poles, as a boat.
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   4. To stir, as molten glass, with a pole.
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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Pole \Pole\, n. [L. polus, Gr. ? a pivot or hinge on which
   anything turns, an axis, a pole; akin to ? to move: cf. F.
   1. Either extremity of an axis of a sphere; especially, one
      of the extremities of the earth's axis; as, the north
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   2. (Spherics) A point upon the surface of a sphere equally
      distant from every part of the circumference of a great
      circle; or the point in which a diameter of the sphere
      perpendicular to the plane of such circle meets the
      surface. Such a point is called the pole of that circle;
      as, the pole of the horizon; the pole of the ecliptic; the
      pole of a given meridian.
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   3. (Physics) One of the opposite or contrasted parts or
      directions in which a polar force is manifested; a point
      of maximum intensity of a force which has two such points,
      or which has polarity; as, the poles of a magnet; the
      north pole of a needle.
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   4. The firmament; the sky. [Poetic]
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            Shoots against the dusky pole.        --Milton.
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   5. (Geom.) See Polarity, and Polar, n.
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   Magnetic pole. See under Magnetic.

   Poles of the earth, or Terrestrial poles (Geog.), the two
      opposite points on the earth's surface through which its
      axis passes.

   Poles of the heavens, or Celestial poles, the two
      opposite points in the celestial sphere which coincide
      with the earth's axis produced, and about which the
      heavens appear to revolve.
      [1913 Webster] Poleax

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Rod \Rod\, n. [The same word as rood. See Rood.]
   1. A straight and slender stick; a wand; hence, any slender
      bar, as of wood or metal (applied to various purposes).
      (a) An instrument of punishment or correction;
          figuratively, chastisement.
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                He that spareth his rod hateth his son. --Prov.
                                                  xiii. 24.
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      (b) A kind of sceptor, or badge of office; hence,
          figuratively, power; authority; tyranny; oppression.
          "The rod, and bird of peace." --Shak.
      (c) A support for a fishing line; a fish pole. --Gay.
      (d) (Mach. & Structure) A member used in tension, as for
          sustaining a suspended weight, or in tension and
          compression, as for transmitting reciprocating motion,
          etc.; a connecting bar.
      (e) An instrument for measuring.
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   2. A measure of length containing sixteen and a half feet; --
      called also perch, and pole.
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   Black rod. See in the Vocabulary.

   Rods and cones (Anat.), the elongated cells or elements of
      the sensory layer of the retina, some of which are
      cylindrical, others somewhat conical.
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