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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Proleg \Pro"leg\, n. [Pref. pro- for, in place of + leg.]
One of the fleshy legs found on the abdominal segments of the
larv[ae] of Lepidoptera, sawflies, and some other insects.
Those of Lepidoptera have a circle of hooks. Called also
proped, propleg, and falseleg.