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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Puncheon \Punch"eon\, n. [F. poin[,c]on awl, bodkin, crown, king-post, fr. L. punctio a pricking, fr. pungere to prick. See Pungent, and cf. Punch a tool, Punction.] [1913 Webster] 1. A figured stamp, die, or punch, used by goldsmiths, cutlers, etc. [1913 Webster] 2. (Carp.) A short, upright piece of timber in framing; a short post; an intermediate stud. --Oxf. Gloss. [1913 Webster] 3. A split log or heavy slab with the face smoothed; as, a floor made of puncheons. [U.S.] --Bartlett. [1913 Webster] 4. [F. poin[,c]on, perh. the same as poin[,c]on an awl.] A cask containing, sometimes 84, sometimes 120, gallons. [1913 Webster]