spirit


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Spirit \Spir"it\, n. [OF. espirit, esperit, F. esprit, L.
   spiritus, from spirare to breathe, to blow. Cf. Conspire,
   Expire, Esprit, Sprite.]
   1. Air set in motion by breathing; breath; hence, sometimes,
      life itself. [Obs.] "All of spirit would deprive."
      --Spenser.
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            The mild air, with season moderate,
            Gently attempered, and disposed eo well,
            That still it breathed foorth sweet spirit.
                                                  --Spenser.
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   2. A rough breathing; an aspirate, as the letter h; also, a
      mark to denote aspiration; a breathing. [Obs.]
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            Be it a letter or spirit, we have great use for it.
                                                  --B. Jonson.
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   3. Life, or living substance, considered independently of
      corporeal existence; an intelligence conceived of apart
      from any physical organization or embodiment; vital
      essence, force, or energy, as distinct from matter.
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   4. The intelligent, immaterial and immortal part of man; the
      soul, in distinction from the body in which it resides;
      the agent or subject of vital and spiritual functions,
      whether spiritual or material.
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            There is a spirit in man; and the inspiration of the
            Almighty giveth them understanding.   --Job xxxii.
                                                  8.
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            As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith
            without works is dead also.           --James ii.
                                                  26.
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            Spirit is a substance wherein thinking, knowing,
            doubting, and a power of moving, do subsist.
                                                  --Locke.
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   5. Specifically, a disembodied soul; the human soul after it
      has left the body.
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            Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was,
            and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.
                                                  --Eccl. xii.
                                                  7.
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            Ye gentle spirits far away,
            With whom we shared the cup of grace. --Keble.
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   6. Any supernatural being, good or bad; an apparition; a
      specter; a ghost; also, sometimes, a sprite,; a fairy; an
      elf.
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            Whilst young, preserve his tender mind from all
            impressions of spirits and goblins in the dark.
                                                  --Locke.
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   7. Energy, vivacity, ardor, enthusiasm, courage, etc.
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            "Write it then, quickly," replied Bede; and
            summoning all his spirits together, like the last
            blaze of a candle going out, he indited it, and
            expired.                              --Fuller.
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   8. One who is vivacious or lively; one who evinces great
      activity or peculiar characteristics of mind or temper;
      as, a ruling spirit; a schismatic spirit.
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            Such spirits as he desired to please, such would I
            choose for my judges.                 --Dryden.
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   9. Temper or disposition of mind; mental condition or
      disposition; intellectual or moral state; -- often in the
      plural; as, to be cheerful, or in good spirits; to be
      downhearted, or in bad spirits.
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            God has . . . made a spirit of building succeed a
            spirit of pulling down.               --South.
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            A perfect judge will read each work of wit
            With the same spirit that its author writ. --Pope.
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   10. Intent; real meaning; -- opposed to the letter, or to
       formal statement; also, characteristic quality,
       especially such as is derived from the individual genius
       or the personal character; as, the spirit of an
       enterprise, of a document, or the like.
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   11. Tenuous, volatile, airy, or vapory substance, possessed
       of active qualities.
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             All bodies have spirits . . . within them. --Bacon.
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   12. Any liquid produced by distillation; especially, alcohol,
       the spirits, or spirit, of wine (it having been first
       distilled from wine): -- often in the plural.
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   13. pl. Rum, whisky, brandy, gin, and other distilled liquors
       having much alcohol, in distinction from wine and malt
       liquors.
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   14. (Med.) A solution in alcohol of a volatile principle. Cf.
       Tincture. --U. S. Disp.
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   15. (Alchemy) Any one of the four substances, sulphur, sal
       ammoniac, quicksilver, or arsenic (or, according to some,
       orpiment).
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             The four spirits and the bodies seven. --Chaucer.
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   16. (Dyeing) Stannic chloride. See under Stannic.
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   Note: Spirit is sometimes joined with other words, forming
         compounds, generally of obvious signification; as,
         spirit-moving, spirit-searching, spirit-stirring, etc.
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   Astral spirits, Familiar spirits, etc. See under
      Astral, Familiar, etc.

   Animal spirits.
       (a) (Physiol.) The fluid which at one time was supposed
           to circulate through the nerves and was regarded as
           the agent of sensation and motion; -- called also the
           nervous fluid, or nervous principle.
       (b) Physical health and energy; frolicsomeness;
           sportiveness.

   Ardent spirits, strong alcoholic liquors, as brandy, rum,
      whisky, etc., obtained by distillation.

   Holy Spirit, or The Spirit (Theol.), the Spirit of God,
      or the third person of the Trinity; the Holy Ghost. The
      spirit also signifies the human spirit as influenced or
      animated by the Divine Spirit.

   Proof spirit. (Chem.) See under Proof.

   Rectified spirit (Chem.), spirit rendered purer or more
      concentrated by redistillation, so as to increase the
      percentage of absolute alcohol.

   Spirit butterfly (Zool.), any one of numerous species of
      delicate butterflies of tropical America belonging to the
      genus Ithomia. The wings are gauzy and nearly destitute
      of scales.

   Spirit duck. (Zool.)
       (a) The buffle-headed duck.
       (b) The golden-eye.

   Spirit lamp (Art), a lamp in which alcohol or methylated
      spirit is burned.

   Spirit level. See under Level.

   Spirit of hartshorn. (Old Chem.) See under Hartshorn.

   Spirit of Mindererus (Med.), an aqueous solution of acetate
      of ammonium; -- named after R. Minderer, physician of
      Augsburg.

   Spirit of nitrous ether (Med. Chem.), a pale yellow liquid,
      of a sweetish taste and a pleasant ethereal odor. It is
      obtained by the distillation of alcohol with nitric and
      sulphuric acids, and consists essentially of ethyl nitrite
      with a little acetic aldehyde. It is used as a
      diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic, etc. Called also
      sweet spirit of niter.

   Spirit of salt (Chem.), hydrochloric acid; -- so called
      because obtained from salt and sulphuric acid. [Obs.]

   Spirit of sense, the utmost refinement of sensation. [Obs.]
      --Shak.

   Spirits of turpentine, or Spirit of turpentine (Chem.),
      rectified oil of turpentine, a transparent, colorless,
      volatile, and very inflammable liquid, distilled from the
      turpentine of the various species of pine; camphine. It is
      commonly used to remove paint from surfaces, or to dissole
      oil-based paint. See Camphine.

   Spirit of vitriol (Chem.), sulphuric acid; -- so called
      because formerly obtained by the distillation of green
      vitriol. [Obs.]

   Spirit of vitriolic ether (Chem.) ethyl ether; -- often but
      incorrectly called sulphuric ether. See Ether. [Obs.]
      

   Spirits of wine, or Spirit of wine (Chem.), alcohol; --
      so called because formerly obtained by the distillation of
      wine.

   Spirit rapper, one who practices spirit rapping; a "medium"
      so called.

   Spirit rapping, an alleged form of communication with the
      spirits of the dead by raps. See Spiritualism, 3.

   Sweet spirit of niter. See Spirit of nitrous ether,
      above.
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   Syn: Life; ardor; energy; fire; courage; animatioon;
        cheerfulness; vivacity; enterprise.
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.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Spirit \Spir"it\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Spirited; p. pr. & vb.
   n. Spiriting.]
   1. To animate with vigor; to excite; to encourage; to
      inspirit; as, civil dissensions often spirit the ambition
      of private men; -- sometimes followed by up.
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            Many officers and private men spirit up and assist
            those obstinate people to continue in their
            rebellion.                            --Swift.
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   2. To convey rapidly and secretly, or mysteriously, as if by
      the agency of a spirit; to kidnap; -- often with away, or
      off.
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            The ministry had him spirited away, and carried
            abroad as a dangerous person.         --Arbuthnot &
                                                  Pope.
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            I felt as if I had been spirited into some castle of
            antiquity.                            --Willis.
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   Spiriting away (Law), causing to leave; the offense of
      inducing a witness to leave a jurisdiction so as to evade
      process requiring attendance at trial.
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