union jack


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Jack \Jack\ (j[a^]k), n. [F. Jacques James, L. Jacobus, Gr. ?,
   Heb. Ya 'aq[=o]b Jacob; prop., seizing by the heel; hence, a
   supplanter. Cf. Jacobite, Jockey.]
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   1. A familiar nickname of, or substitute for, John.
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            You are John Rugby, and you are Jack Rugby. --Shak.
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   2. An impertinent or silly fellow; a simpleton; a boor; a
      clown; also, a servant; a rustic. "Jack fool." --Chaucer.
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            Since every Jack became a gentleman,
            There 's many a gentle person made a Jack. --Shak.
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   3. A popular colloquial name for a sailor; -- called also
      Jack tar, and Jack afloat.
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   4. A mechanical contrivance, an auxiliary machine, or a
      subordinate part of a machine, rendering convenient
      service, and often supplying the place of a boy or
      attendant who was commonly called Jack; as:
      (a) A device to pull off boots.
      (b) A sawhorse or sawbuck.
      (c) A machine or contrivance for turning a spit; a smoke
          jack, or kitchen jack.
      (b) (Mining) A wooden wedge for separating rocks rent by
          blasting.
      (e) (Knitting Machine) A lever for depressing the sinkers
          which push the loops down on the needles.
      (f) (Warping Machine) A grating to separate and guide the
          threads; a heck box.
      (g) (Spinning) A machine for twisting the sliver as it
          leaves the carding machine.
      (h) A compact, portable machine for planing metal.
      (i) A machine for slicking or pebbling leather.
      (k) A system of gearing driven by a horse power, for
          multiplying speed.
      (l) A hood or other device placed over a chimney or vent
          pipe, to prevent a back draught.
      (m) In the harpsichord, an intermediate piece
          communicating the action of the key to the quill; --
          called also hopper.
      (n) In hunting, the pan or frame holding the fuel of the
          torch used to attract game at night; also, the light
          itself. --C. Hallock.
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   5. A portable machine variously constructed, for exerting
      great pressure, or lifting or moving a heavy body such as
      an automobile through a small distance. It consists of a
      lever, screw, rack and pinion, hydraulic press, or any
      simple combination of mechanical powers, working in a
      compact pedestal or support and operated by a lever,
      crank, capstan bar, etc. The name is often given to a
      jackscrew, which is a kind of jack.
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   6. The small bowl used as a mark in the game of bowls.
      --Shak.
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            Like an uninstructed bowler who thinks to attain the
            jack by delivering his bowl straight forward upon
            it.                                   --Sir W.
                                                  Scott.
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   7. The male of certain animals, as of the ass.
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   8. (Zool.)
      (a) A young pike; a pickerel.
      (b) The jurel.
      (c) A large, California rock fish ({Sebastodes
          paucispinus}); -- called also boccaccio, and
          m['e]rou.
      (d) The wall-eyed pike.
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   9. A drinking measure holding half a pint; also, one holding
      a quarter of a pint. [Prov. Eng.] --Halliwell.
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   10. (Naut.)
       (a) A flag, containing only the union, without the fly,
           usually hoisted on a jack staff at the bowsprit cap;
           -- called also union jack. The American jack is a
           small blue flag, with a star for each State.
       (b) A bar of iron athwart ships at a topgallant masthead,
           to support a royal mast, and give spread to the royal
           shrouds; -- called also jack crosstree. --R. H.
           Dana, Jr.
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   11. The knave of a suit of playing cards.

   12. (pl.) A game played with small (metallic, with
       tetrahedrally oriented spikes) objects (the jacks(1950+),
       formerly jackstones) that are tossed, caught, picked up,
       and arranged on a horizontal surface in various patterns;
       in the modern American game, the movements are
       accompanied by tossing or bouncing a rubber ball on the
       horizontal surface supporting the jacks. same as
       jackstones.
       [PJC]

   13. Money. [slang]
       [PJC]

   14. Apple jack.
       [PJC]

   15. Brandy.
       [PJC]

   Note: Jack is used adjectively in various senses. It
         sometimes designates something cut short or diminished
         in size; as, a jack timber; a jack rafter; a jack arch,
         etc.
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   Jack arch, an arch of the thickness of one brick.

   Jack back (Brewing & Malt Vinegar Manuf.), a cistern which
      receives the wort. See under 1st Back.

   Jack block (Naut.), a block fixed in the topgallant or
      royal rigging, used for raising and lowering light masts
      and spars.

   Jack boots, boots reaching above the knee; -- worn in the
      17 century by soldiers; afterwards by fishermen, etc.

   Jack crosstree. (Naut.) See 10, b, above.

   Jack curlew (Zool.), the whimbrel.

   Jack frame. (Cotton Spinning) See 4
       (g), above.

   Jack Frost, frost or cold weather personified as a
      mischievous person.

   Jack hare, a male hare. --Cowper.

   Jack lamp, a lamp for still hunting and camp use. See def.
      4
       (n.), above.

   Jack plane, a joiner's plane used for coarse work.

   Jack post, one of the posts which support the crank shaft
      of a deep-well-boring apparatus.

   Jack pot (Poker Playing), the name given to the stakes,
      contributions to which are made by each player
      successively, till such a hand is turned as shall take the
      "pot," which is the sum total of all the bets. See also
      jackpot.

   Jack rabbit (Zool.), any one of several species of large
      American hares, having very large ears and long legs. The
      California species (Lepus Californicus), and that of
      Texas and New Mexico (Lepus callotis), have the tail
      black above, and the ears black at the tip. They do not
      become white in winter. The more northern prairie hare
      (Lepus campestris) has the upper side of the tail white,
      and in winter its fur becomes nearly white.

   Jack rafter (Arch.), in England, one of the shorter rafters
      used in constructing a hip or valley roof; in the United
      States, any secondary roof timber, as the common rafters
      resting on purlins in a trussed roof; also, one of the
      pieces simulating extended rafters, used under the eaves
      in some styles of building.

   Jack salmon (Zool.), the wall-eyed pike, or glasseye.

   Jack sauce, an impudent fellow. [Colloq. & Obs.]

   Jack shaft (Mach.), the first intermediate shaft, in a
      factory or mill, which receives power, through belts or
      gearing, from a prime mover, and transmits it, by the same
      means, to other intermediate shafts or to a line shaft.

   Jack sinker (Knitting Mach.), a thin iron plate operated by
      the jack to depress the loop of thread between two
      needles.

   Jack snipe. (Zool.) See in the Vocabulary.

   Jack staff (Naut.), a staff fixed on the bowsprit cap, upon
      which the jack is hoisted.

   Jack timber (Arch.), any timber, as a rafter, rib, or
      studding, which, being intercepted, is shorter than the
      others.

   Jack towel, a towel hung on a roller for common use.

   Jack truss (Arch.), in a hip roof, a minor truss used where
      the roof has not its full section.

   Jack tree. (Bot.) See 1st Jack, n.

   Jack yard (Naut.), a short spar to extend a topsail beyond
      the gaff.
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   Blue jack, blue vitriol; sulphate of copper.

   Hydraulic jack, a jack used for lifting, pulling, or
      forcing, consisting of a compact portable hydrostatic
      press, with its pump and a reservoir containing a supply
      of liquid, as oil.

   Jack-at-a-pinch.
       (a) One called upon to take the place of another in an
           emergency.
       (b) An itinerant parson who conducts an occasional
           service for a fee.

   Jack-at-all-trades, one who can turn his hand to any kind
      of work.

   Jack-by-the-hedge (Bot.), a plant of the genus Erysimum
      (Erysimum alliaria, or Alliaria officinalis), which
      grows under hedges. It bears a white flower and has a
      taste not unlike garlic. Called also, in England,
      sauce-alone. --Eng. Cyc.

   Jack-in-office, an insolent fellow in authority. --Wolcott.

   Jack-in-the-bush (Bot.), a tropical shrub with red fruit
      (Cordia Cylindrostachya).

   Jack-in-the-green, a chimney sweep inclosed in a framework
      of boughs, carried in Mayday processions.

   Jack-of-the-buttery (Bot.), the stonecrop (Sedum acre).
      

   Jack-of-the-clock, a figure, usually of a man, on old
      clocks, which struck the time on the bell.

   Jack-on-both-sides, one who is or tries to be neutral.

   Jack-out-of-office, one who has been in office and is
      turned out. --Shak.

   Jack the Giant Killer, the hero of a well-known nursery
      story.

   Yellow Jack (Naut.), the yellow fever; also, the quarantine
      flag. See Yellow flag, under Flag.
      [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Union \Un"ion\ (?; 277), n. [F., from L. unio oneness, union, a
   single large pearl, a kind of onion, fr. unus one. See One,
   and cf. Onion, Unit.]
   1. The act of uniting or joining two or more things into one,
      or the state of being united or joined; junction;
      coalition; combination.
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   Note: Union differs from connection, as it implies that the
         bodies are in contact, without an inter?ening body;
         whereas things may be connected by the in???vention of
         a third body, as by a cord or chain.
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   2. Agreement and conjunction of mind, spirit, will,
      affections, or the like; harmony; concord.
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   3. That which is united, or made one; something formed by a
      combination or coalition of parts or members; a
      confederation; a consolidated body; a league; as, the
      weavers have formed a union; trades unions have become
      very numerous; the United States of America are often
      called the Union. --A. Hamilton.
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   4. A textile fabric composed of two or more materials, as
      cotton, silk, wool, etc., woven together.
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   5. A large, fine pearl. [Obs.]
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            If they [pearls] be white, great, round, smooth, and
            weighty . . . our dainties and delicates here at
            Rome . . . call them unions, as a man would say
            "singular," and by themselves alone.  --Holland.
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            In the cup an union shall he throw,
            Richer than that which four successive kings
            In Denmark's crown have worn.         --Shak.
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   6. A device emblematic of union, used on a national flag or
      ensign, sometimes, as in the military standard of Great
      Britain, covering the whole field; sometimes, as in the
      flag of the United States, and the English naval and
      marine flag, occupying the upper inner corner, the rest of
      the flag being called the fly. Also, a flag having such a
      device; especially, the flag of Great Britain.
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   Note: The union of the United States ensign is a cluster of
         white stars, denoting the union of the States, and,
         properly, equal in number to that of the States,
         displayed on a blue field; the fly being composed of
         alternate stripes of red and white. The union of the
         British ensign is the three crosses of St. George, St.
         Andrew, and St. Patrick in combination, denoting the
         union of England, Scotland and Ireland, displayed on a
         blue field in the national banner used on shore, on a
         red, white, or blue field in naval ensigns, and with a
         white border or fly in the merchant service.
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   7. (Mach.) A joint or other connection uniting parts of
      machinery, or the like, as the elastic pipe of a tender
      connecting it with the feed pipe of a locomotive engine;
      especially, a pipe fitting for connecting pipes, or pipes
      and fittings, in such a way as to facilitate
      disconnection.
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   8. (Brewing) A cask suspended on trunnions, in which
      fermentation is carried on.
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   Hypostatic union (Theol.) See under Hypostatic.

   Latin union. See under Latin.

   Legislative Union (Eng. Hist.), the union of Great Britain
      and Ireland, which took place Jan. 1, 1801.

   Union, or Act of Union (Eng. Hist.), the act by which
      Scotland was united to England, or by which the two
      kingdoms were incorporated into one, in 1707.

   Union by the first intention, or {Union by the second
   intention}. (Surg.) See To heal by the first intention, or
      To heal by the second intention, under Intention.

   Union down (Naut.), a signal of distress at sea made by
      reversing the flag, or turning its union downward.

   Union jack. (Naut.) See Jack, n., 10.

   Union joint. (Mech.)
      (a) A joint formed by means of a union.
      (b) A piece of pipe made in the form of the letter T.
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   Syn: Unity; junction; connection; concord; alliance;
        coalition; combination; confederacy.

   Usage: Union, Unity. Union is the act of bringing two or
          more things together so as to make but one, or the
          state of being united into one. Unity is a state of
          simple oneness, either of essence, as the unity of
          God, or of action, feeling, etc., as unity of design,
          of affection, etc. Thus, we may speak of effecting a
          union of interests which shall result in a unity of
          labor and interest in securing a given object.
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                One kingdom, joy, and union without end.
                                                  --Milton.
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                [Man] is to . . . beget
                Like of his like, his image multiplied.
                In unity defective; which requires
                Collateral love, and dearest amity. --Milton.
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