unity of type


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Type \Type\ (t[imac]p), n. [F. type; cf. It. tipo, from L. typus
   a figure, image, a form, type, character, Gr. ty`pos the mark
   of a blow, impression, form of character, model, from the
   root of ty`ptein to beat, strike; cf. Skr. tup to hurt.]
   1. The mark or impression of something; stamp; impressed
      sign; emblem.
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            The faith they have in tennis, and tall stockings,
            Short blistered breeches, and those types of travel.
                                                  --Shak.
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   2. Form or character impressed; style; semblance.
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            Thy father bears the type of king of Naples. --Shak.
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   3. A figure or representation of something to come; a token;
      a sign; a symbol; -- correlative to antitype.
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            A type is no longer a type when the thing typified
            comes to be actually exhibited.       --South.
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   4. That which possesses or exemplifies characteristic
      qualities; the representative. Specifically:
      (a) (Biol.) A general form or structure common to a number
          of individuals; hence, the ideal representation of a
          species, genus, or other group, combining the
          essential characteristics; an animal or plant
          possessing or exemplifying the essential
          characteristics of a species, genus, or other group.
          Also, a group or division of animals having a certain
          typical or characteristic structure of body maintained
          within the group.
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                Since the time of Cuvier and Baer . . . the
                whole animal kingdom has been universally held
                to be divisible into a small number of main
                divisions or types.               --Haeckel.
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      (b) (Fine Arts) The original object, or class of objects,
          scene, face, or conception, which becomes the subject
          of a copy; esp., the design on the face of a medal or
          a coin.
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      (c) (Chem.) A simple compound, used as a model or pattern
          to which other compounds are conveniently regarded as
          being related, and from which they may be actually or
          theoretically derived.
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   Note: The fundamental types used to express the simplest and
         most essential chemical relations are hydrochloric
         acid, HCl; water, H2O; ammonia, NH3; and methane,
         CH4.
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   5. (Typog.)
      (a) A raised letter, figure, accent, or other character,
          cast in metal or cut in wood, used in printing.
      (b) Such letters or characters, in general, or the whole
          quantity of them used in printing, spoken of
          collectively; any number or mass of such letters or
          characters, however disposed.
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   Note: Type are mostly made by casting type metal in a mold,
         though some of the larger sizes are made from maple,
         mahogany, or boxwood. In the cut, a is the body; b, the
         face, or part from which the impression is taken; c,
         the shoulder, or top of the body; d, the nick
         (sometimes two or more are made), designed to assist
         the compositor in distinguishing the bottom of the face
         from t`e top; e, the groove made in the process of
         finishing, -- each type as cast having attached to the
         bottom of the body a jet, or small piece of metal
         (formed by the surplus metal poured into the mold),
         which, when broken off, leaves a roughness that
         requires to be removed. The fine lines at the top and
         bottom of a letter are technically called ceriphs, and
         when part of the face projects over the body, as in the
         letter f, the projection is called a kern.
         [1913 Webster] The type which compose an ordinary book
         font consist of Roman CAPITALS, small capitals, and
         lower-case letters, and Italic CAPITALS and lower-case
         letters, with accompanying figures, points, and
         reference marks, -- in all about two hundred
         characters. Including the various modern styles of
         fancy type, some three or four hundred varieties of
         face are made. Besides the ordinary Roman and Italic,
         some of the most important of the varieties are 
         [1913 Webster] Old English. Black Letter. Old Style.
         French Elzevir. Boldface. Antique. Clarendon. Gothic.
         Typewriter. Script.
         [1913 Webster] The smallest body in common use is
         diamond; then follow in order of size, pearl, agate,
         nonpareil, minion, brevier, bourgeois (or two-line
         diamond), long primer (or two-line pearl), small pica
         (or two-line agate), pica (or two-line nonpareil),
         English (or two-line minion), Columbian (or two-line
         brevier), great primer (or two-line bourgeois), paragon
         (or two-line long primer), double small pica (or
         two-line small pica), double pica (or two-line pica),
         double English (or two-line English), double great
         primer (or two-line great primer), double paragon (or
         two-line paragon), canon (or two-line double pica).
         Above this, the sizes are called five-line pica,
         six-line pica, seven-line pica, and so on, being made
         mostly of wood. The following alphabets show the
         different sizes up to great primer.
         [1913 Webster] Brilliant . . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
         Diamond . . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Pearl . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Agate . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Nonpareil . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Minion . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Brevier . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Bourgeois . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Long primer . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Small pica . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Pica . . . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz English . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Columbian . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Great primer . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
         [1913 Webster] The foregoing account is conformed to
         the designations made use of by American type founders,
         but is substantially correct for England. Agate,
         however, is called ruby, in England, where, also, a
         size intermediate between nonpareil and minion is
         employed, called emerald.
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   Point system of type bodies (Type Founding), a system
      adopted by the type founders of the United States by which
      the various sizes of type have been so modified and
      changed that each size bears an exact proportional
      relation to every other size. The system is a modification
      of a French system, and is based on the pica body. This
      pica body is divided into twelfths, which are termed
      "points," and every type body consist of a given number of
      these points. Many of the type founders indicate the new
      sizes of type by the number of points, and the old names
      are gradually being done away with. By the point system
      type founders cast type of a uniform size and height,
      whereas formerly fonts of pica or other type made by
      different founders would often vary slightly so that they
      could not be used together. There are no type in actual
      use corresponding to the smaller theoretical sizes of the
      point system. In some cases, as in that of ruby, the term
      used designates a different size from that heretofore so
      called.
      [1913 Webster] 1 American 9 Bourgeois [bar] [bar] 11/2
      German [bar] 2 Saxon 10 Long Primer [bar] [bar] 21/2 Norse
      [bar] 3 Brilliant 11 Small Pica [bar] [bar] 31/2 Ruby 12
      Pica [bar] [bar] 4 Excelsior [bar] 41/2 Diamond 14 English
      [bar] [bar] 5 Pearl 16 Columbian [bar] [bar] 51/2 Agate
      [bar] 6 Nonpareil 18 Great Primer [bar] [bar] 7 Minion
      [bar] 8 Brevier 20 Paragon [bar] [bar] Diagram of the
      "points" by which sizes of Type are graduated in the
      "Point System".
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   Type founder, one who casts or manufacture type.

   Type foundry, Type foundery, a place for the manufacture
      of type.

   Type metal, an alloy used in making type, stereotype
      plates, etc., and in backing up electrotype plates. It
      consists essentially of lead and antimony, often with a
      little tin, nickel, or copper.

   Type wheel, a wheel having raised letters or characters on
      its periphery, and used in typewriters, printing
      telegraphs, etc.

   Unity of type (Biol.), that fundamental agreement in
      structure which is seen in organic beings of the same
      class, and is quite independent of their habits of life.
      --Darwin.
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.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Unity \U"ni*ty\, n.; pl. Unities. [OE. unite, F. unit['e], L.
   unitas, from unus one. See One, and cf. Unit.]
   1. The state of being one; oneness.
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            Whatever we can consider as one thing suggests to
            the understanding the idea of unity.  --Locks.
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   Note: Unity is affirmed of a simple substance or indivisible
         monad, or of several particles or parts so intimately
         and closely united as to constitute a separate body or
         thing. See the Synonyms under Union.
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   2. Concord; harmony; conjunction; agreement; uniformity; as,
      a unity of proofs; unity of doctrine.
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            Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren
            to dwell together in unity!           --Ps. cxxxiii.
                                                  1.
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   3. (Math.) Any definite quantity, or aggregate of quantities
      or magnitudes taken as one, or for which 1 is made to
      stand in calculation; thus, in a table of natural sines,
      the radius of the circle is regarded as unity.
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   Note: The number 1, when it is not applied to any particular
         thing, is generally called unity.
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   4. (Poetry & Rhet.) In dramatic composition, one of the
      principles by which a uniform tenor of story and propriety
      of representation are preserved; conformity in a
      composition to these; in oratory, discourse, etc., the due
      subordination and reference of every part to the
      development of the leading idea or the eastablishment of
      the main proposition.
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   Note: In the Greek drama, the three unities required were
         those of action, of time, and of place; that is, that
         there should be but one main plot; that the time
         supposed should not exceed twenty-four hours; and that
         the place of the action before the spectators should be
         one and the same throughout the piece.
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   5. (Fine Arts & Mus.) Such a combination of parts as to
      constitute a whole, or a kind of symmetry of style and
      character.
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   6. (Law) The peculiar characteristics of an estate held by
      several in joint tenancy.
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   Note: The properties of it are derived from its unity, which
         is fourfold; unity of interest, unity of title, unity
         of time, and unity of possession; in other words, joint
         tenants have one and the same interest, accruing by one
         and the same conveyance, commencing at the same time,
         and held by one and the same undivided possession.
         Unity of possession is also a joint possession of two
         rights in the same thing by several titles, as when a
         man, having a lease of land, afterward buys the fee
         simple, or, having an easement in the land of another,
         buys the servient estate.
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   At unity, at one.

   Unity of type. (Biol.) See under Type.
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   Syn: Union; oneness; junction; concord; harmony. See Union.
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