wood screw


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Screw \Screw\ (skr[udd]), n. [OE. scrue, OF. escroue, escroe,
   female screw, F. ['e]crou, L. scrobis a ditch, trench, in
   LL., the hole made by swine in rooting; cf. D. schroef a
   screw, G. schraube, Icel. skr[=u]fa.]
   1. A cylinder, or a cylindrical perforation, having a
      continuous rib, called the thread, winding round it
      spirally at a constant inclination, so as to leave a
      continuous spiral groove between one turn and the next, --
      used chiefly for producing, when revolved, motion or
      pressure in the direction of its axis, by the sliding of
      the threads of the cylinder in the grooves between the
      threads of the perforation adapted to it, the former being
      distinguished as the external, or male screw, or, more
      usually the screw; the latter as the internal, or female
      screw, or, more usually, the nut.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: The screw, as a mechanical power, is a modification of
         the inclined plane, and may be regarded as a
         right-angled triangle wrapped round a cylinder, the
         hypotenuse of the marking the spiral thread of the
         screw, its base equaling the circumference of the
         cylinder, and its height the pitch of the thread.
         [1913 Webster]

   2. Specifically, a kind of nail with a spiral thread and a
      head with a nick to receive the end of the screw-driver.
      Screws are much used to hold together pieces of wood or to
      fasten something; -- called also wood screws, and {screw
      nails}. See also Screw bolt, below.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. Anything shaped or acting like a screw; esp., a form of
      wheel for propelling steam vessels. It is placed at the
      stern, and furnished with blades having helicoidal
      surfaces to act against the water in the manner of a
      screw. See Screw propeller, below.
      [1913 Webster]

   4. A steam vesel propelled by a screw instead of wheels; a
      screw steamer; a propeller.
      [1913 Webster]

   5. An extortioner; a sharp bargainer; a skinflint; a niggard.
      --Thackeray.
      [1913 Webster]

   6. An instructor who examines with great or unnecessary
      severity; also, a searching or strict examination of a
      student by an instructor. [Cant, American Colleges]
      [1913 Webster]

   7. A small packet of tobacco. [Slang] --Mayhew.
      [1913 Webster]

   8. An unsound or worn-out horse, useful as a hack, and
      commonly of good appearance. --Ld. Lytton.
      [1913 Webster]

   9. (Math.) A straight line in space with which a definite
      linear magnitude termed the pitch is associated (cf. 5th
      Pitch, 10
      (b) ). It is used to express the displacement of a rigid
          body, which may always be made to consist of a
          rotation about an axis combined with a translation
          parallel to that axis.
          [1913 Webster]

   10. (Zool.) An amphipod crustacean; as, the skeleton screw
       (Caprella). See Sand screw, under Sand.
       [1913 Webster]

   Archimedes screw, Compound screw, Foot screw, etc. See
      under Archimedes, Compound, Foot, etc.

   A screw loose, something out of order, so that work is not
      done smoothly; as, there is a screw loose somewhere. --H.
      Martineau.

   Endless screw, or perpetual screw, a screw used to give
      motion to a toothed wheel by the action of its threads
      between the teeth of the wheel; -- called also a worm.
      

   Lag screw. See under Lag.

   Micrometer screw, a screw with fine threads, used for the
      measurement of very small spaces.

   Right and left screw, a screw having threads upon the
      opposite ends which wind in opposite directions.

   Screw alley. See Shaft alley, under Shaft.

   Screw bean. (Bot.)
       (a) The curious spirally coiled pod of a leguminous tree
           (Prosopis pubescens) growing from Texas to
           California. It is used for fodder, and ground into
           meal by the Indians.
       (b) The tree itself. Its heavy hard wood is used for
           fuel, for fencing, and for railroad ties.

   Screw bolt, a bolt having a screw thread on its shank, in
      distinction from a key bolt. See 1st Bolt, 3.

   Screw box, a device, resembling a die, for cutting the
      thread on a wooden screw.

   Screw dock. See under Dock.

   Screw engine, a marine engine for driving a screw
      propeller.

   Screw gear. See Spiral gear, under Spiral.

   Screw jack. Same as Jackscrew.

   Screw key, a wrench for turning a screw or nut; a spanner
      wrench.

   Screw machine.
       (a) One of a series of machines employed in the
           manufacture of wood screws.
       (b) A machine tool resembling a lathe, having a number of
           cutting tools that can be caused to act on the work
           successively, for making screws and other turned
           pieces from metal rods.

   Screw pine (Bot.), any plant of the endogenous genus
      Pandanus, of which there are about fifty species,
      natives of tropical lands from Africa to Polynesia; --
      named from the spiral arrangement of the pineapple-like
      leaves.

   Screw plate, a device for cutting threads on small screws,
      consisting of a thin steel plate having a series of
      perforations with internal screws forming dies.

   Screw press, a press in which pressure is exerted by means
      of a screw.

   Screw propeller, a screw or spiral bladed wheel, used in
      the propulsion of steam vessels; also, a steam vessel
      propelled by a screw.

   Screw shell (Zool.), a long, slender, spiral gastropod
      shell, especially of the genus Turritella and allied
      genera. See Turritella.

   Screw steamer, a steamship propelled by a screw.

   Screw thread, the spiral rib which forms a screw.

   Screw stone (Paleon.), the fossil stem of an encrinite.

   Screw tree (Bot.), any plant of the genus Helicteres,
      consisting of about thirty species of tropical shrubs,
      with simple leaves and spirally twisted, five-celled
      capsules; -- also called twisted-horn, and twisty.

   Screw valve, a stop valve which is opened or closed by a
      screw.

   Screw worm (Zool.), the larva of an American fly
      (Compsomyia macellaria), allied to the blowflies, which
      sometimes deposits its eggs in the nostrils, or about
      wounds, in man and other animals, with fatal results.

   Screw wrench.
       (a) A wrench for turning a screw.
       (b) A wrench with an adjustable jaw that is moved by a
           screw.

   To put the screws on or To put the screw on, to use
      pressure upon, as for the purpose of extortion; to coerce.
      

   To put under the screw or To put under the screws, to
      subject to pressure; to force.

   Wood screw, a metal screw with a sharp thread of coarse
      pitch, adapted to holding fast in wood. See Illust. of
      Wood screw, under Wood.
      [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Wood \Wood\, n. [OE. wode, wude, AS. wudu, wiodu; akin to OHG.
   witu, Icel. vi?r, Dan. & Sw. ved wood, and probably to Ir. &
   Gael. fiodh, W. gwydd trees, shrubs.]
   [1913 Webster]
   1. A large and thick collection of trees; a forest or grove;
      -- frequently used in the plural.
      [1913 Webster]

            Light thickens, and the crow
            Makes wing to the rooky wood.         --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. The substance of trees and the like; the hard fibrous
      substance which composes the body of a tree and its
      branches, and which is covered by the bark; timber. "To
      worship their own work in wood and stone for gods."
      --Milton.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. (Bot.) The fibrous material which makes up the greater
      part of the stems and branches of trees and shrubby
      plants, and is found to a less extent in herbaceous stems.
      It consists of elongated tubular or needle-shaped cells of
      various kinds, usually interwoven with the shinning bands
      called silver grain.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: Wood consists chiefly of the carbohydrates cellulose
         and lignin, which are isomeric with starch.
         [1913 Webster]

   4. Trees cut or sawed for the fire or other uses.
      [1913 Webster]

   Wood acid, Wood vinegar (Chem.), a complex acid liquid
      obtained in the dry distillation of wood, and containing
      large quantities of acetic acid; hence, specifically,
      acetic acid. Formerly called pyroligneous acid.

   Wood anemone (Bot.), a delicate flower (Anemone nemorosa)
      of early spring; -- also called windflower. See Illust.
      of Anemone.

   Wood ant (Zool.), a large ant (Formica rufa) which lives
      in woods and forests, and constructs large nests.

   Wood apple (Bot.). See Elephant apple, under Elephant.
      

   Wood baboon (Zool.), the drill.

   Wood betony. (Bot.)
      (a) Same as Betony.
      (b) The common American lousewort ({Pedicularis
          Canadensis}), a low perennial herb with yellowish or
          purplish flowers.

   Wood borer. (Zool.)
      (a) The larva of any one of numerous species of boring
          beetles, esp. elaters, longicorn beetles,
          buprestidans, and certain weevils. See Apple borer,
          under Apple, and Pine weevil, under Pine.
      (b) The larva of any one of various species of
          lepidopterous insects, especially of the clearwing
          moths, as the peach-tree borer (see under Peach),
          and of the goat moths.
      (c) The larva of various species of hymenopterous of the
          tribe Urocerata. See Tremex.
      (d) Any one of several bivalve shells which bore in wood,
          as the teredos, and species of Xylophaga.
      (e) Any one of several species of small Crustacea, as the
          Limnoria, and the boring amphipod ({Chelura
          terebrans}).

   Wood carpet, a kind of floor covering made of thin pieces
      of wood secured to a flexible backing, as of cloth.
      --Knight.

   Wood cell (Bot.), a slender cylindrical or prismatic cell
      usually tapering to a point at both ends. It is the
      principal constituent of woody fiber.

   Wood choir, the choir, or chorus, of birds in the woods.
      [Poetic] --Coleridge.

   Wood coal, charcoal; also, lignite, or brown coal.

   Wood cricket (Zool.), a small European cricket ({Nemobius
      sylvestris}).

   Wood culver (Zool.), the wood pigeon.

   Wood cut, an engraving on wood; also, a print from such an
      engraving.

   Wood dove (Zool.), the stockdove.

   Wood drink, a decoction or infusion of medicinal woods.

   Wood duck (Zool.)
      (a) A very beautiful American duck (Aix sponsa). The
          male has a large crest, and its plumage is varied with
          green, purple, black, white, and red. It builds its
          nest in trees, whence the name. Called also {bridal
          duck}, summer duck, and wood widgeon.
      (b) The hooded merganser.
      (c) The Australian maned goose (Chlamydochen jubata).

   Wood echo, an echo from the wood.

   Wood engraver.
      (a) An engraver on wood.
      (b) (Zool.) Any of several species of small beetles whose
          larvae bore beneath the bark of trees, and excavate
          furrows in the wood often more or less resembling
          coarse engravings; especially, {Xyleborus
          xylographus}.

   Wood engraving.
      (a) The act or art engraving on wood; xylography.
      (b) An engraving on wood; a wood cut; also, a print from
          such an engraving.

   Wood fern. (Bot.) See Shield fern, under Shield.

   Wood fiber.
      (a) (Bot.) Fibrovascular tissue.
      (b) Wood comminuted, and reduced to a powdery or dusty
          mass.

   Wood fretter (Zool.), any one of numerous species of
      beetles whose larvae bore in the wood, or beneath the
      bark, of trees.

   Wood frog (Zool.), a common North American frog ({Rana
      sylvatica}) which lives chiefly in the woods, except
      during the breeding season. It is drab or yellowish brown,
      with a black stripe on each side of the head.

   Wood germander. (Bot.) See under Germander.

   Wood god, a fabled sylvan deity.

   Wood grass. (Bot.) See under Grass.

   Wood grouse. (Zool.)
      (a) The capercailzie.
      (b) The spruce partridge. See under Spruce.

   Wood guest (Zool.), the ringdove. [Prov. Eng.]

   Wood hen. (Zool.)
      (a) Any one of several species of Old World short-winged
          rails of the genus Ocydromus, including the weka and
          allied species.
      (b) The American woodcock.

   Wood hoopoe (Zool.), any one of several species of Old
      World arboreal birds belonging to Irrisor and allied
      genera. They are closely allied to the common hoopoe, but
      have a curved beak, and a longer tail.

   Wood ibis (Zool.), any one of several species of large,
      long-legged, wading birds belonging to the genus
      Tantalus. The head and neck are naked or scantily
      covered with feathers. The American wood ibis ({Tantalus
      loculator}) is common in Florida.

   Wood lark (Zool.), a small European lark ({Alauda
      arborea}), which, like, the skylark, utters its notes
      while on the wing. So called from its habit of perching on
      trees.

   Wood laurel (Bot.), a European evergreen shrub ({Daphne
      Laureola}).

   Wood leopard (Zool.), a European spotted moth ({Zeuzera
      aesculi}) allied to the goat moth. Its large fleshy larva
      bores in the wood of the apple, pear, and other fruit
      trees.

   Wood lily (Bot.), the lily of the valley.

   Wood lock (Naut.), a piece of wood close fitted and
      sheathed with copper, in the throating or score of the
      pintle, to keep the rudder from rising.

   Wood louse (Zool.)
      (a) Any one of numerous species of terrestrial isopod
          Crustacea belonging to Oniscus, Armadillo, and
          related genera. See Sow bug, under Sow, and {Pill
          bug}, under Pill.
      (b) Any one of several species of small, wingless,
          pseudoneuropterous insects of the family Psocidae,
          which live in the crevices of walls and among old
          books and papers. Some of the species are called also
          book lice, and deathticks, or deathwatches.

   Wood mite (Zool.), any one of numerous small mites of the
      family Oribatidae. They are found chiefly in woods, on
      tree trunks and stones.

   Wood mote. (Eng. Law)
      (a) Formerly, the forest court.
      (b) The court of attachment.

   Wood nettle. (Bot.) See under Nettle.

   Wood nightshade (Bot.), woody nightshade.

   Wood nut (Bot.), the filbert.

   Wood nymph. (a) A nymph inhabiting the woods; a fabled
      goddess of the woods; a dryad. "The wood nymphs, decked
      with daisies trim." --Milton.
      (b) (Zool.) Any one of several species of handsomely
          colored moths belonging to the genus Eudryas. The
          larvae are bright-colored, and some of the species, as
          Eudryas grata, and Eudryas unio, feed on the
          leaves of the grapevine.
      (c) (Zool.) Any one of several species of handsomely
          colored South American humming birds belonging to the
          genus Thalurania. The males are bright blue, or
          green and blue.

   Wood offering, wood burnt on the altar.
      [1913 Webster]

            We cast the lots . . . for the wood offering. --Neh.
                                                  x. 34.
      [1913 Webster]

   Wood oil (Bot.), a resinous oil obtained from several East
      Indian trees of the genus Dipterocarpus, having
      properties similar to those of copaiba, and sometimes
      substituted for it. It is also used for mixing paint. See
      Gurjun.

   Wood opal (Min.), a striped variety of coarse opal, having
      some resemblance to wood.

   Wood paper, paper made of wood pulp. See Wood pulp,
      below.

   Wood pewee (Zool.), a North American tyrant flycatcher
      (Contopus virens). It closely resembles the pewee, but
      is smaller.

   Wood pie (Zool.), any black and white woodpecker,
      especially the European great spotted woodpecker.

   Wood pigeon. (Zool.)
      (a) Any one of numerous species of Old World pigeons
          belonging to Palumbus and allied genera of the
          family Columbidae.
      (b) The ringdove.

   Wood puceron (Zool.), a plant louse.

   Wood pulp (Technol.), vegetable fiber obtained from the
      poplar and other white woods, and so softened by digestion
      with a hot solution of alkali that it can be formed into
      sheet paper, etc. It is now produced on an immense scale.
      

   Wood quail (Zool.), any one of several species of East
      Indian crested quails belonging to Rollulus and allied
      genera, as the red-crested wood quail ({Rollulus
      roulroul}), the male of which is bright green, with a long
      crest of red hairlike feathers.

   Wood rabbit (Zool.), the cottontail.

   Wood rat (Zool.), any one of several species of American
      wild rats of the genus Neotoma found in the Southern
      United States; -- called also bush rat. The Florida wood
      rat (Neotoma Floridana) is the best-known species.

   Wood reed grass (Bot.), a tall grass (Cinna arundinacea)
      growing in moist woods.

   Wood reeve, the steward or overseer of a wood. [Eng.]

   Wood rush (Bot.), any plant of the genus Luzula,
      differing from the true rushes of the genus Juncus
      chiefly in having very few seeds in each capsule.

   Wood sage (Bot.), a name given to several labiate plants of
      the genus Teucrium. See Germander.

   Wood screw, a metal screw formed with a sharp thread, and
      usually with a slotted head, for insertion in wood.

   Wood sheldrake (Zool.), the hooded merganser.

   Wood shock (Zool.), the fisher. See Fisher, 2.

   Wood shrike (Zool.), any one of numerous species of Old
      World singing birds belonging to Grallina,
      Collyricincla, Prionops, and allied genera, common in
      India and Australia. They are allied to the true shrikes,
      but feed upon both insects and berries.

   Wood snipe. (Zool.)
      (a) The American woodcock.
      (b) An Asiatic snipe (Gallinago nemoricola).

   Wood soot, soot from burnt wood.

   Wood sore. (Zool.) See Cuckoo spit, under Cuckoo.

   Wood sorrel (Bot.), a plant of the genus Oxalis ({Oxalis
      Acetosella}), having an acid taste. See Illust. (a) of
      Shamrock.

   Wood spirit. (Chem.) See Methyl alcohol, under Methyl.
      

   Wood stamp, a carved or engraved block or stamp of wood,
      for impressing figures or colors on fabrics.

   Wood star (Zool.), any one of several species of small
      South American humming birds belonging to the genus
      Calothorax. The male has a brilliant gorget of blue,
      purple, and other colors.

   Wood sucker (Zool.), the yaffle.

   Wood swallow (Zool.), any one of numerous species of Old
      World passerine birds belonging to the genus Artamus and
      allied genera of the family Artamidae. They are common
      in the East Indies, Asia, and Australia. In form and
      habits they resemble swallows, but in structure they
      resemble shrikes. They are usually black above and white
      beneath.

   Wood tapper (Zool.), any woodpecker.

   Wood tar. See under Tar.

   Wood thrush, (Zool.)
      (a) An American thrush (Turdus mustelinus) noted for the
          sweetness of its song. See under Thrush.
      (b) The missel thrush.

   Wood tick. See in Vocabulary.

   Wood tin. (Min.). See Cassiterite.

   Wood titmouse (Zool.), the goldcgest.

   Wood tortoise (Zool.), the sculptured tortoise. See under
      Sculptured.

   Wood vine (Bot.), the white bryony.

   Wood vinegar. See Wood acid, above.

   Wood warbler. (Zool.)
      (a) Any one of numerous species of American warblers of
          the genus Dendroica. See Warbler.
      (b) A European warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix); --
          called also green wren, wood wren, and {yellow
          wren}.

   Wood worm (Zool.), a larva that bores in wood; a wood
      borer.

   Wood wren. (Zool.)
      (a) The wood warbler.
      (b) The willow warbler.
          [1913 Webster]
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