bill of exchange


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Raise \Raise\ (r[=a]z), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raised (r[=a]zd);
   p. pr. & vb. n. Raising.] [OE. reisen, Icel. reisa,
   causative of r[imac]sa to rise. See Rise, and cf. Rear to
   raise.]
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   1. To cause to rise; to bring from a lower to a higher place;
      to lift upward; to elevate; to heave; as, to raise a stone
      or weight. Hence, figuratively: 
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      (a) To bring to a higher condition or situation; to
          elevate in rank, dignity, and the like; to increase
          the value or estimation of; to promote; to exalt; to
          advance; to enhance; as, to raise from a low estate;
          to raise to office; to raise the price, and the like.
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                This gentleman came to be raised to great
                titles.                           --Clarendon.
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                The plate pieces of eight were raised three
                pence in the piece.               --Sir W.
                                                  Temple.
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      (b) To increase the strength, vigor, or vehemence of; to
          excite; to intensify; to invigorate; to heighten; as,
          to raise the pulse; to raise the voice; to raise the
          spirits or the courage; to raise the heat of a
          furnace.
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      (c) To elevate in degree according to some scale; as, to
          raise the pitch of the voice; to raise the temperature
          of a room.
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   2. To cause to rise up, or assume an erect position or
      posture; to set up; to make upright; as, to raise a mast
      or flagstaff. Hence: 
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      (a) To cause to spring up from a recumbent position, from
          a state of quiet, or the like; to awaken; to arouse.
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                They shall not awake, nor be raised out of their
                sleep.                            --Job xiv. 12.
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      (b) To rouse to action; to stir up; to incite to tumult,
          struggle, or war; to excite.
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                He commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind.
                                                  --Ps. cvii.
                                                  25.
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                Aeneas . . . employs his pains,
                In parts remote, to raise the Tuscan swains.
                                                  --Dryden.
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      (c) To bring up from the lower world; to call up, as a
          spirit from the world of spirits; to recall from
          death; to give life to.
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                Why should it be thought a thing incredible with
                you, that God should raise the dead ? --Acts
                                                  xxvi. 8.
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   3. To cause to arise, grow up, or come into being or to
      appear; to give rise to; to originate, produce, cause,
      effect, or the like. Hence, specifically: 
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      (a) To form by the accumulation of materials or
          constituent parts; to build up; to erect; as, to raise
          a lofty structure, a wall, a heap of stones.
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                I will raise forts against thee.  --Isa. xxix.
                                                  3.
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      (b) To bring together; to collect; to levy; to get
          together or obtain for use or service; as, to raise
          money, troops, and the like. "To raise up a rent."
          --Chaucer.
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      (c) To cause to grow; to procure to be produced, bred, or
          propagated; to grow; as, to raise corn, barley, hops,
          etc.; toraise cattle. "He raised sheep." "He raised
          wheat where none grew before." --Johnson's Dict.
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   Note: In some parts of the United States, notably in the
         Southern States, raise is also commonly applied to the
         rearing or bringing up of children.
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               I was raised, as they say in Virginia, among the
               mountains of the North.            --Paulding.
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      (d) To bring into being; to produce; to cause to arise,
          come forth, or appear; -- often with up.
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                I will raise them up a prophet from among their
                brethren, like unto thee.         --Deut. xviii.
                                                  18.
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                God vouchsafes to raise another world
                From him [Noah], and all his anger to forget.
                                                  --Milton.
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      (e) To give rise to; to set agoing; to occasion; to start;
          to originate; as, to raise a smile or a blush.
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                Thou shalt not raise a false report. --Ex.
                                                  xxiii. 1.
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      (f) To give vent or utterance to; to utter; to strike up.
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                Soon as the prince appears, they raise a cry.
                                                  --Dryden.
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      (g) To bring to notice; to submit for consideration; as,
          to raise a point of order; to raise an objection.
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   4. To cause to rise, as by the effect of leaven; to make
      light and spongy, as bread.
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            Miss Liddy can dance a jig, and raise paste.
                                                  --Spectator.
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   5. (Naut.)
      (a) To cause (the land or any other object) to seem higher
          by drawing nearer to it; as, to raise Sandy Hook
          light.
      (b) To let go; as in the command, Raise tacks and sheets,
          i. e., Let go tacks and sheets.
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   6. (Law) To create or constitute; as, to raise a use, that
      is, to create it. --Burrill.
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   To raise a blockade (Mil.), to remove or break up a
      blockade, either by withdrawing the ships or forces
      employed in enforcing it, or by driving them away or
      dispersing them.

   To raise a check, note, bill of exchange, etc., to
      increase fraudulently its nominal value by changing the
      writing, figures, or printing in which the sum payable is
      specified.

   To raise a siege, to relinquish an attempt to take a place
      by besieging it, or to cause the attempt to be
      relinquished.

   To raise steam, to produce steam of a required pressure.

   To raise the wind, to procure ready money by some temporary
      expedient. [Colloq.]

   To raise Cain, or To raise the devil, to cause a great
      disturbance; to make great trouble. [Slang]
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   Syn: To lift; exalt; elevate; erect; originate; cause;
        produce; grow; heighten; aggravate; excite.
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.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Bill \Bill\, n. [OE. bill, bille, fr. LL. billa (or OF. bille),
   for L. bulla anything rounded, LL., seal, stamp, letter,
   edict, roll; cf. F. bille a ball, prob. fr. Ger.; cf. MHG.
   bickel, D. bikkel, dice. Cf. Bull papal edict, Billet a
   paper.]
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   1. (Law) A declaration made in writing, stating some wrong
      the complainant has suffered from the defendant, or a
      fault committed by some person against a law.
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   2. A writing binding the signer or signers to pay a certain
      sum at a future day or on demand, with or without
      interest, as may be stated in the document. [Eng.]
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   Note: In the United States, it is usually called a note, a
         note of hand, or a promissory note.
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   3. A form or draft of a law, presented to a legislature for
      enactment; a proposed or projected law.
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   4. A paper, written or printed, and posted up or given away,
      to advertise something, as a lecture, a play, or the sale
      of goods; a placard; a poster; a handbill.
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            She put up the bill in her parlor window. --Dickens.
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   5. An account of goods sold, services rendered, or work done,
      with the price or charge; a statement of a creditor's
      claim, in gross or by items; as, a grocer's bill.
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   6. Any paper, containing a statement of particulars; as, a
      bill of charges or expenditures; a weekly bill of
      mortality; a bill of fare, etc.
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   Bill of adventure. See under Adventure.

   Bill of costs, a statement of the items which form the
      total amount of the costs of a party to a suit or action.
      

   Bill of credit.
      (a) Within the constitution of the United States, a paper
          issued by a State, on the mere faith and credit of the
          State, and designed to circulate as money. No State
          shall "emit bills of credit." --U. S. Const. --Peters.
          --Wharton. --Bouvier
      (b) Among merchants, a letter sent by an agent or other
          person to a merchant, desiring him to give credit to
          the bearer for goods or money.

   Bill of divorce, in the Jewish law, a writing given by the
      husband to the wife, by which the marriage relation was
      dissolved. --Jer. iii. 8.

   Bill of entry, a written account of goods entered at the
      customhouse, whether imported or intended for exportation.
      

   Bill of exceptions. See under Exception.

   Bill of exchange (Com.), a written order or request from
      one person or house to another, desiring the latter to pay
      to some person designated a certain sum of money therein
      generally is, and, to be negotiable, must be, made payable
      to order or to bearer. So also the order generally
      expresses a specified time of payment, and that it is
      drawn for value. The person who draws the bill is called
      the drawer, the person on whom it is drawn is, before
      acceptance, called the drawee, -- after acceptance, the
      acceptor; the person to whom the money is directed to be
      paid is called the payee. The person making the order may
      himself be the payee. The bill itself is frequently called
      a draft. See Exchange. --Chitty.

   Bill of fare, a written or printed enumeration of the
      dishes served at a public table, or of the dishes (with
      prices annexed) which may be ordered at a restaurant, etc.
      

   Bill of health, a certificate from the proper authorities
      as to the state of health of a ship's company at the time
      of her leaving port.

   Bill of indictment, a written accusation lawfully presented
      to a grand jury. If the jury consider the evidence
      sufficient to support the accusation, they indorse it "A
      true bill," otherwise they write upon it "Not a true
      bill," or "Not found," or "Ignoramus", or "Ignored."

   Bill of lading, a written account of goods shipped by any
      person, signed by the agent of the owner of the vessel, or
      by its master, acknowledging the receipt of the goods, and
      promising to deliver them safe at the place directed,
      dangers of the sea excepted. It is usual for the master to
      sign two, three, or four copies of the bill; one of which
      he keeps in possession, one is kept by the shipper, and
      one is sent to the consignee of the goods.

   Bill of mortality, an official statement of the number of
      deaths in a place or district within a given time; also, a
      district required to be covered by such statement; as, a
      place within the bills of mortality of London.

   Bill of pains and penalties, a special act of a legislature
      which inflicts a punishment less than death upon persons
      supposed to be guilty of treason or felony, without any
      conviction in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings.
      --Bouvier. --Wharton.

   Bill of parcels, an account given by the seller to the
      buyer of the several articles purchased, with the price of
      each.

   Bill of particulars (Law), a detailed statement of the
      items of a plaintiff's demand in an action, or of the
      defendant's set-off.

   Bill of rights, a summary of rights and privileges claimed
      by a people. Such was the declaration presented by the
      Lords and Commons of England to the Prince and Princess of
      Orange in 1688, and enacted in Parliament after they
      became king and queen. In America, a bill or declaration
      of rights is prefixed to most of the constitutions of the
      several States.

   Bill of sale, a formal instrument for the conveyance or
      transfer of goods and chattels.

   Bill of sight, a form of entry at the customhouse, by which
      goods, respecting which the importer is not possessed of
      full information, may be provisionally landed for
      examination.

   Bill of store, a license granted at the customhouse to
      merchants, to carry such stores and provisions as are
      necessary for a voyage, custom free. --Wharton.

   Bills payable (pl.), the outstanding unpaid notes or
      acceptances made and issued by an individual or firm.

   Bills receivable (pl.), the unpaid promissory notes or
      acceptances held by an individual or firm. --McElrath.

   A true bill, a bill of indictment sanctioned by a grand
      jury.
      [1913 Webster]
.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

exchange \ex*change"\ ([e^]ks*ch[=a]nj"), n. [OE. eschange,
   eschaunge, OF. eschange, fr. eschangier, F. ['e]changer, to
   exchange; pref. ex- out + F. changer. See Change, and cf.
   Excamb.]
   1. The act of giving or taking one thing in return for
      another which is regarded as an equivalent; as, an
      exchange of cattle for grain.
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   2. The act of substituting one thing in the place of another;
      as, an exchange of grief for joy, or of a scepter for a
      sword, and the like; also, the act of giving and receiving
      reciprocally; as, an exchange of civilities or views.
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   3. The thing given or received in return; esp., a publication
      exchanged for another. --Shak.
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   4. (Com.) The process of setting accounts or debts between
      parties residing at a distance from each other, without
      the intervention of money, by exchanging orders or drafts,
      called bills of exchange. These may be drawn in one
      country and payable in another, in which case they are
      called foreign bills; or they may be drawn and made
      payable in the same country, in which case they are called
      inland bills. The term bill of exchange is often
      abbreviated into exchange; as, to buy or sell exchange.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: A in London is creditor to B in New York, and C in
         London owes D in New York a like sum. A in London draws
         a bill of exchange on B in New York; C in London
         purchases the bill, by which A receives his debt due
         from B in New York. C transmits the bill to D in New
         York, who receives the amount from B.
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   5. (Law) A mutual grant of equal interests, the one in
      consideration of the other. Estates exchanged must be
      equal in quantity, as fee simple for fee simple.
      --Blackstone.
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   6. The place where the merchants, brokers, and bankers of a
      city meet at certain hours, to transact business; also,
      the institution which sets regulations and maintains the
      physical facilities of such a place; as, the New York
      Stock Exchange; a commodity exchange. In this sense the
      word was at one time often contracted to 'change
      [1913 Webster +PJC]

   Arbitration of exchange. See under Arbitration.

   Bill of exchange. See under Bill.

   Exchange broker. See under Broker.

   Par of exchange, the established value of the coin or
      standard of value of one country when expressed in the
      coin or standard of another, as the value of the pound
      sterling in the currency of France or the United States.
      The par of exchange rarely varies, and serves as a measure
      for the rise and fall of exchange that is affected by the
      demand and supply. Exchange is at par when, for example, a
      bill in New York, for the payment of one hundred pounds
      sterling in London, can be purchased for the sum. Exchange
      is in favor of a place when it can be purchased there at
      or above par.

   Telephone exchange, a central office in which the wires of
      any two telephones or telephone stations may be connected
      to permit conversation.

   Syn: Barter; dealing; trade; traffic; interchange.
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