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bill of exchange
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Raise \Raise\ (r[=a]z), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Raised (r[=a]zd); p. pr. & vb. n. Raising.] [OE. reisen, Icel. reisa, causative of r[imac]sa to rise. See Rise, and cf. Rear to raise.] [1913 Webster] 1. To cause to rise; to bring from a lower to a higher place; to lift upward; to elevate; to heave; as, to raise a stone or weight. Hence, figuratively: [1913 Webster] (a) To bring to a higher condition or situation; to elevate in rank, dignity, and the like; to increase the value or estimation of; to promote; to exalt; to advance; to enhance; as, to raise from a low estate; to raise to office; to raise the price, and the like. [1913 Webster] This gentleman came to be raised to great titles. --Clarendon. [1913 Webster] The plate pieces of eight were raised three pence in the piece. --Sir W. Temple. [1913 Webster] (b) To increase the strength, vigor, or vehemence of; to excite; to intensify; to invigorate; to heighten; as, to raise the pulse; to raise the voice; to raise the spirits or the courage; to raise the heat of a furnace. [1913 Webster] (c) To elevate in degree according to some scale; as, to raise the pitch of the voice; to raise the temperature of a room. [1913 Webster] 2. To cause to rise up, or assume an erect position or posture; to set up; to make upright; as, to raise a mast or flagstaff. Hence: [1913 Webster] (a) To cause to spring up from a recumbent position, from a state of quiet, or the like; to awaken; to arouse. [1913 Webster] They shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep. --Job xiv. 12. [1913 Webster] (b) To rouse to action; to stir up; to incite to tumult, struggle, or war; to excite. [1913 Webster] He commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind. --Ps. cvii. 25. [1913 Webster] Aeneas . . . employs his pains, In parts remote, to raise the Tuscan swains. --Dryden. [1913 Webster] (c) To bring up from the lower world; to call up, as a spirit from the world of spirits; to recall from death; to give life to. [1913 Webster] Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead ? --Acts xxvi. 8. [1913 Webster] 3. To cause to arise, grow up, or come into being or to appear; to give rise to; to originate, produce, cause, effect, or the like. Hence, specifically: [1913 Webster] (a) To form by the accumulation of materials or constituent parts; to build up; to erect; as, to raise a lofty structure, a wall, a heap of stones. [1913 Webster] I will raise forts against thee. --Isa. xxix. 3. [1913 Webster] (b) To bring together; to collect; to levy; to get together or obtain for use or service; as, to raise money, troops, and the like. "To raise up a rent." --Chaucer. [1913 Webster] (c) To cause to grow; to procure to be produced, bred, or propagated; to grow; as, to raise corn, barley, hops, etc.; toraise cattle. "He raised sheep." "He raised wheat where none grew before." --Johnson's Dict. [1913 Webster] Note: In some parts of the United States, notably in the Southern States, raise is also commonly applied to the rearing or bringing up of children. [1913 Webster] I was raised, as they say in Virginia, among the mountains of the North. --Paulding. [1913 Webster] (d) To bring into being; to produce; to cause to arise, come forth, or appear; -- often with up. [1913 Webster] I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee. --Deut. xviii. 18. [1913 Webster] God vouchsafes to raise another world From him [Noah], and all his anger to forget. --Milton. [1913 Webster] (e) To give rise to; to set agoing; to occasion; to start; to originate; as, to raise a smile or a blush. [1913 Webster] Thou shalt not raise a false report. --Ex. xxiii. 1. [1913 Webster] (f) To give vent or utterance to; to utter; to strike up. [1913 Webster] Soon as the prince appears, they raise a cry. --Dryden. [1913 Webster] (g) To bring to notice; to submit for consideration; as, to raise a point of order; to raise an objection. [1913 Webster] 4. To cause to rise, as by the effect of leaven; to make light and spongy, as bread. [1913 Webster] Miss Liddy can dance a jig, and raise paste. --Spectator. [1913 Webster] 5. (Naut.) (a) To cause (the land or any other object) to seem higher by drawing nearer to it; as, to raise Sandy Hook light. (b) To let go; as in the command, Raise tacks and sheets, i. e., Let go tacks and sheets. [1913 Webster] 6. (Law) To create or constitute; as, to raise a use, that is, to create it. --Burrill. [1913 Webster] To raise a blockade (Mil.), to remove or break up a blockade, either by withdrawing the ships or forces employed in enforcing it, or by driving them away or dispersing them. To raise a check, note, bill of exchange, etc., to increase fraudulently its nominal value by changing the writing, figures, or printing in which the sum payable is specified. To raise a siege, to relinquish an attempt to take a place by besieging it, or to cause the attempt to be relinquished. To raise steam, to produce steam of a required pressure. To raise the wind, to procure ready money by some temporary expedient. [Colloq.] To raise Cain, or To raise the devil, to cause a great disturbance; to make great trouble. [Slang] [1913 Webster] Syn: To lift; exalt; elevate; erect; originate; cause; produce; grow; heighten; aggravate; excite. [1913 Webster] .
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Bill \Bill\, n. [OE. bill, bille, fr. LL. billa (or OF. bille), for L. bulla anything rounded, LL., seal, stamp, letter, edict, roll; cf. F. bille a ball, prob. fr. Ger.; cf. MHG. bickel, D. bikkel, dice. Cf. Bull papal edict, Billet a paper.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Law) A declaration made in writing, stating some wrong the complainant has suffered from the defendant, or a fault committed by some person against a law. [1913 Webster] 2. A writing binding the signer or signers to pay a certain sum at a future day or on demand, with or without interest, as may be stated in the document. [Eng.] [1913 Webster] Note: In the United States, it is usually called a note, a note of hand, or a promissory note. [1913 Webster] 3. A form or draft of a law, presented to a legislature for enactment; a proposed or projected law. [1913 Webster] 4. A paper, written or printed, and posted up or given away, to advertise something, as a lecture, a play, or the sale of goods; a placard; a poster; a handbill. [1913 Webster] She put up the bill in her parlor window. --Dickens. [1913 Webster] 5. An account of goods sold, services rendered, or work done, with the price or charge; a statement of a creditor's claim, in gross or by items; as, a grocer's bill. [1913 Webster] 6. Any paper, containing a statement of particulars; as, a bill of charges or expenditures; a weekly bill of mortality; a bill of fare, etc. [1913 Webster] Bill of adventure. See under Adventure. Bill of costs, a statement of the items which form the total amount of the costs of a party to a suit or action. Bill of credit. (a) Within the constitution of the United States, a paper issued by a State, on the mere faith and credit of the State, and designed to circulate as money. No State shall "emit bills of credit." --U. S. Const. --Peters. --Wharton. --Bouvier (b) Among merchants, a letter sent by an agent or other person to a merchant, desiring him to give credit to the bearer for goods or money. Bill of divorce, in the Jewish law, a writing given by the husband to the wife, by which the marriage relation was dissolved. --Jer. iii. 8. Bill of entry, a written account of goods entered at the customhouse, whether imported or intended for exportation. Bill of exceptions. See under Exception. Bill of exchange (Com.), a written order or request from one person or house to another, desiring the latter to pay to some person designated a certain sum of money therein generally is, and, to be negotiable, must be, made payable to order or to bearer. So also the order generally expresses a specified time of payment, and that it is drawn for value. The person who draws the bill is called the drawer, the person on whom it is drawn is, before acceptance, called the drawee, -- after acceptance, the acceptor; the person to whom the money is directed to be paid is called the payee. The person making the order may himself be the payee. The bill itself is frequently called a draft. See Exchange. --Chitty. Bill of fare, a written or printed enumeration of the dishes served at a public table, or of the dishes (with prices annexed) which may be ordered at a restaurant, etc. Bill of health, a certificate from the proper authorities as to the state of health of a ship's company at the time of her leaving port. Bill of indictment, a written accusation lawfully presented to a grand jury. If the jury consider the evidence sufficient to support the accusation, they indorse it "A true bill," otherwise they write upon it "Not a true bill," or "Not found," or "Ignoramus", or "Ignored." Bill of lading, a written account of goods shipped by any person, signed by the agent of the owner of the vessel, or by its master, acknowledging the receipt of the goods, and promising to deliver them safe at the place directed, dangers of the sea excepted. It is usual for the master to sign two, three, or four copies of the bill; one of which he keeps in possession, one is kept by the shipper, and one is sent to the consignee of the goods. Bill of mortality, an official statement of the number of deaths in a place or district within a given time; also, a district required to be covered by such statement; as, a place within the bills of mortality of London. Bill of pains and penalties, a special act of a legislature which inflicts a punishment less than death upon persons supposed to be guilty of treason or felony, without any conviction in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. --Bouvier. --Wharton. Bill of parcels, an account given by the seller to the buyer of the several articles purchased, with the price of each. Bill of particulars (Law), a detailed statement of the items of a plaintiff's demand in an action, or of the defendant's set-off. Bill of rights, a summary of rights and privileges claimed by a people. Such was the declaration presented by the Lords and Commons of England to the Prince and Princess of Orange in 1688, and enacted in Parliament after they became king and queen. In America, a bill or declaration of rights is prefixed to most of the constitutions of the several States. Bill of sale, a formal instrument for the conveyance or transfer of goods and chattels. Bill of sight, a form of entry at the customhouse, by which goods, respecting which the importer is not possessed of full information, may be provisionally landed for examination. Bill of store, a license granted at the customhouse to merchants, to carry such stores and provisions as are necessary for a voyage, custom free. --Wharton. Bills payable (pl.), the outstanding unpaid notes or acceptances made and issued by an individual or firm. Bills receivable (pl.), the unpaid promissory notes or acceptances held by an individual or firm. --McElrath. A true bill, a bill of indictment sanctioned by a grand jury. [1913 Webster] .
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
exchange \ex*change"\ ([e^]ks*ch[=a]nj"), n. [OE. eschange, eschaunge, OF. eschange, fr. eschangier, F. ['e]changer, to exchange; pref. ex- out + F. changer. See Change, and cf. Excamb.] 1. The act of giving or taking one thing in return for another which is regarded as an equivalent; as, an exchange of cattle for grain. [1913 Webster] 2. The act of substituting one thing in the place of another; as, an exchange of grief for joy, or of a scepter for a sword, and the like; also, the act of giving and receiving reciprocally; as, an exchange of civilities or views. [1913 Webster] 3. The thing given or received in return; esp., a publication exchanged for another. --Shak. [1913 Webster] 4. (Com.) The process of setting accounts or debts between parties residing at a distance from each other, without the intervention of money, by exchanging orders or drafts, called bills of exchange. These may be drawn in one country and payable in another, in which case they are called foreign bills; or they may be drawn and made payable in the same country, in which case they are called inland bills. The term bill of exchange is often abbreviated into exchange; as, to buy or sell exchange. [1913 Webster] Note: A in London is creditor to B in New York, and C in London owes D in New York a like sum. A in London draws a bill of exchange on B in New York; C in London purchases the bill, by which A receives his debt due from B in New York. C transmits the bill to D in New York, who receives the amount from B. [1913 Webster] 5. (Law) A mutual grant of equal interests, the one in consideration of the other. Estates exchanged must be equal in quantity, as fee simple for fee simple. --Blackstone. [1913 Webster] 6. The place where the merchants, brokers, and bankers of a city meet at certain hours, to transact business; also, the institution which sets regulations and maintains the physical facilities of such a place; as, the New York Stock Exchange; a commodity exchange. In this sense the word was at one time often contracted to 'change [1913 Webster +PJC] Arbitration of exchange. See under Arbitration. Bill of exchange. See under Bill. Exchange broker. See under Broker. Par of exchange, the established value of the coin or standard of value of one country when expressed in the coin or standard of another, as the value of the pound sterling in the currency of France or the United States. The par of exchange rarely varies, and serves as a measure for the rise and fall of exchange that is affected by the demand and supply. Exchange is at par when, for example, a bill in New York, for the payment of one hundred pounds sterling in London, can be purchased for the sum. Exchange is in favor of a place when it can be purchased there at or above par. Telephone exchange, a central office in which the wires of any two telephones or telephone stations may be connected to permit conversation. Syn: Barter; dealing; trade; traffic; interchange. [1913 Webster]