general average


From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

General \Gen"er*al\, a. [F. g['e]n['e]ral, fr. L. generalis. See
   Genus.]
   1. Relating to a genus or kind; pertaining to a whole class
      or order; as, a general law of animal or vegetable
      economy.
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   2. Comprehending many species or individuals; not special or
      particular; including all particulars; as, a general
      inference or conclusion.
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   3. Not restrained or limited to a precise import; not
      specific; vague; indefinite; lax in signification; as, a
      loose and general expression.
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   4. Common to many, or the greatest number; widely spread;
      prevalent; extensive, though not universal; as, a general
      opinion; a general custom.
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            This general applause and cheerful shout
            Argue your wisdom and your love to Richard. --Shak.
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   5. Having a relation to all; common to the whole; as, Adam,
      our general sire. --Milton.
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   6. As a whole; in gross; for the most part.
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            His general behavior vain, ridiculous. --Shak.
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   7. Usual; common, on most occasions; as, his general habit or
      method.
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   Note: The word general, annexed to a name of office, usually
         denotes chief or superior; as, attorney-general;
         adjutant general; commissary general; quartermaster
         general; vicar-general, etc.
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   General agent (Law), an agent whom a principal employs to
      transact all his business of a particular kind, or to act
      in his affairs generally.

   General assembly. See the Note under Assembly.

   General average, General Court. See under Average,
      Court.

   General court-martial (Mil.), the highest military and
      naval judicial tribunal.

   General dealer (Com.), a shopkeeper who deals in all
      articles in common use.

   General demurrer (Law), a demurrer which objects to a
      pleading in general terms, as insufficient, without
      specifying the defects. --Abbott.

   General epistle, a canonical epistle.

   General guides (Mil.), two sergeants (called the right, and
      the left, general guide) posted opposite the right and
      left flanks of an infantry battalion, to preserve accuracy
      in marching. --Farrow.

   General hospitals (Mil.), hospitals established to receive
      sick and wounded sent from the field hospitals. --Farrow.

   General issue (Law), an issue made by a general plea, which
      traverses the whole declaration or indictment at once,
      without offering any special matter to evade it.
      --Bouvier. --Burrill.

   General lien (Law), a right to detain a chattel, etc.,
      until payment is made of any balance due on a general
      account.

   General officer (Mil.), any officer having a rank above
      that of colonel.

   General orders (Mil.), orders from headquarters published
      to the whole command.

   General practitioner, in the United States, one who
      practices medicine in all its branches without confining
      himself to any specialty; in England, one who practices
      both as physician and as surgeon.

   General ship, a ship not chartered or let to particular
      parties.

   General term (Logic), a term which is the sign of a general
      conception or notion.

   General verdict (Law), the ordinary comprehensive verdict
      in civil actions, "for the plaintiff" or "for the
      defendant". --Burrill.

   General warrant (Law), a warrant, now illegal, to apprehend
      suspected persons, without naming individuals.

   Syn: Syn. General, Common, Universal.

   Usage: Common denotes primarily that in which many share; and
          hence, that which is often met with. General is
          stronger, denoting that which pertains to a majority
          of the individuals which compose a genus, or whole.
          Universal, that which pertains to all without
          exception. To be able to read and write is so common
          an attainment in the United States, that we may
          pronounce it general, though by no means universal.
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.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Gross \Gross\, a. [Compar. Grosser; superl. Grossest.] [F.
   gros, L. grossus, perh. fr. L. crassus thick, dense, fat, E.
   crass, cf. Skr. grathita tied together, wound up, hardened.
   Cf. Engross, Grocer, Grogram.]
   1. Great; large; bulky; fat; of huge size; excessively large.
      "A gross fat man." --Shak.
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            A gross body of horse under the Duke. --Milton.
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   2. Coarse; rough; not fine or delicate.
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   3. Not easily aroused or excited; not sensitive in perception
      or feeling; dull; witless.
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            Tell her of things that no gross ear can hear.
                                                  --Milton.
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   4. Expressing, or originating in, animal or sensual
      appetites; hence, coarse, vulgar, low, obscene, or impure.
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            The terms which are delicate in one age become gross
            in the next.                          --Macaulay.
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   5. Hence: Disgusting; repulsive; highly offensive; as, a
      gross remark.
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   6. Thick; dense; not attenuated; as, a gross medium.
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   7. Great; palpable; serious; vagrant; shameful; as, a gross
      mistake; gross injustice; gross negligence.
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   8. Whole; entire; total; without deduction; as, the gross
      sum, or gross amount, the gross weight; -- opposed to
      net.
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   Gross adventure (Law) the loan of money upon bottomry, i.
      e., on a mortgage of a ship.

   Gross average (Law), that kind of average which falls upon
      the gross or entire amount of ship, cargo, and freight; --
      commonly called general average. --Bouvier. --Burrill.

   Gross receipts, the total of the receipts, before they are
      diminished by any deduction, as for expenses; --
      distinguished from net profits. --Abbott.

   Gross weight the total weight of merchandise or goods,
      without deduction for tare, tret, or waste; --
      distinguished from neat weight, or net weight.
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.

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Average \Av"er*age\, n. [OF. average, LL. averagium, prob. fr.
   OF. aver, F. avoir, property, horses, cattle, etc.; prop.
   infin., to have, from L. habere to have. Cf. F. av['e]rage
   small cattle, and avarie (perh. of different origin) damage
   to ship or cargo, port dues. The first meaning was perhaps
   the service of carting a feudal lord's wheat, then charge for
   carriage, the contribution towards loss of things carried, in
   proportion to the amount of each person's property. Cf.
   Aver, n., Avercorn, Averpenny.]
   1. (OLd Eng. Law) That service which a tenant owed his lord,
      to be done by the work beasts of the tenant, as the
      carriage of wheat, turf, etc.
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   2. [Cf. F. avarie damage to ship or cargo.] (Com.)
      (a) A tariff or duty on goods, etc. [Obs.]
      (b) Any charge in addition to the regular charge for
          freight of goods shipped.
      (c) A contribution to a loss or charge which has been
          imposed upon one of several for the general benefit;
          damage done by sea perils.
      (d) The equitable and proportionate distribution of loss
          or expense among all interested.
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   General average, a contribution made, by all parties
      concerned in a sea adventure, toward a loss occasioned by
      the voluntary sacrifice of the property of some of the
      parties in interest for the benefit of all. It is called
      general average, because it falls upon the gross amount of
      ship, cargo, and freight at risk and saved by the
      sacrifice. --Kent.

   Particular average signifies the damage or partial loss
      happening to the ship, or cargo, or freight, in
      consequence of some fortuitous or unavoidable accident;
      and it is borne by the individual owners of the articles
      damaged, or by their insurers.

   Petty averages are sundry small charges, which occur
      regularly, and are necessarily defrayed by the master in
      the usual course of a voyage; such as port charges, common
      pilotage, and the like, which formerly were, and in some
      cases still are, borne partly by the ship and partly by
      the cargo. In the clause commonly found in bills of
      lading, "primage and average accustomed," average means a
      kind of composition established by usage for such charges,
      which were formerly assessed by way of average. --Arnould.
      --Abbott. --Phillips.
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   3. A mean proportion, medial sum or quantity, made out of
      unequal sums or quantities; an arithmetical mean. Thus, if
      A loses 5 dollars, B 9, and C 16, the sum is 30, and the
      average 10.
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   4. Any medial estimate or general statement derived from a
      comparison of diverse specific cases; a medium or usual
      size, quantity, quality, rate, etc. "The average of
      sensations." --Paley.
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   5. pl. In the English corn trade, the medial price of the
      several kinds of grain in the principal corn markets.
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   On an average, taking the mean of unequal numbers or
      quantities.
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