miner's inch

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Inch \Inch\, n. [OE. inche, unche, AS. ynce, L. uncia the
   twelfth part, inch, ounce. See Ounce a weight.]
   [1913 Webster]
   1. A measure of length, the twelfth part of a foot, commonly
      subdivided into halves, quarters, eights, sixteenths,
      etc., as among mechanics. It was also formerly divided
      into twelve parts, called lines, and originally into three
      parts, called barleycorns, its length supposed to have
      been determined from three grains of barley placed end to
      end lengthwise. It is also sometimes called a prime ('),
      composed of twelve seconds (''), as in the duodecimal
      system of arithmetic.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: The symbol ' is the same symbol as the light accent, or
         the "minutes" of an arc. The "seconds" symbol should
         actually have the two strokes closer than in repeated
         "minutes", but in this dictionary '' will be
         interpreted as "seconds".

               12 seconds ('') make 1 inch or prime. 12 inches
               or primes (') make 1 foot.         --B.
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   Note: The meter, the accepted scientific standard of length,
         equals 39.37 inches; the inch is equal to 2.54
         centimeters. See Metric system, and Meter.
         [1913 Webster]

   2. A small distance or degree, whether of time or space;
      hence, a critical moment; also used metaphorically of
      minor concessins in bargaining; as, he won't give an inch;
      give him an inch and he'll take a mile.
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            Beldame, I think we watched you at an inch. --Shak.
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   By inches, by slow degrees, gradually.

   Inch of candle. See under Candle.

   Inches of pressure, usually, the pressure indicated by so
      many inches of a mercury column, as on a steam gauge.

   Inch of water. See under Water.

   Miner's inch, (Hydraulic Mining), a unit for the
      measurement of water. See Inch of water, under Water.
      [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Miner \Min"er\, n. [Cf. F. mineur.]
   [1913 Webster]
   1. One who mines; a digger for metals, etc.; one engaged in
      the business of getting ore, coal, or precious stones, out
      of the earth; one who digs military mines; as, armies have
      sappers and miners.
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   2. (Zool.)
      (a) Any of numerous insects which, in the larval state,
          excavate galleries in the parenchyma of leaves. They
          are mostly minute moths and dipterous flies.
      (b) The chattering, or garrulous, honey eater of Australia
          (Myzantha garrula).
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   Miner's elbow (Med.), a swelling on the black of the elbow
      due to inflammation of the bursa over the olecranon; -- so
      called because of frequent occurrence in miners.

   Miner's inch, in hydraulic mining, the amount of water
      flowing under a given pressure in a given time through a
      hole one inch in diameter. It is a unit for measuring the
      quantity of water supplied.
      [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Water \Wa"ter\ (w[add]"t[~e]r), n. [AS. w[ae]ter; akin to OS.
   watar, OFries. wetir, weter, LG. & D. water, G. wasser, OHG.
   wazzar, Icel. vatn, Sw. vatten, Dan. vand, Goth. wat[=o], O.
   Slav. & Russ. voda, Gr. 'y`dwr, Skr. udan water, ud to wet,
   and perhaps to L. unda wave. [root]137. Cf. Dropsy,
   Hydra, Otter, Wet, Whisky.]
   1. The fluid which descends from the clouds in rain, and
      which forms rivers, lakes, seas, etc. "We will drink
      water." --Shak. "Powers of fire, air, water, and earth."
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: Pure water consists of hydrogen and oxygen, H2O, and
         is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, transparent
         liquid, which is very slightly compressible. At its
         maximum density, 39[deg] Fahr. or 4[deg] C., it is the
         standard for specific gravities, one cubic centimeter
         weighing one gram. It freezes at 32[deg] Fahr. or
         0[deg] C. and boils at 212[deg] Fahr. or 100[deg] C.
         (see Ice, Steam). It is the most important natural
         solvent, and is frequently impregnated with foreign
         matter which is mostly removed by distillation; hence,
         rain water is nearly pure. It is an important
         ingredient in the tissue of animals and plants, the
         human body containing about two thirds its weight of
         [1913 Webster]

   2. A body of water, standing or flowing; a lake, river, or
      other collection of water.
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            Remembering he had passed over a small water a poor
            scholar when first coming to the university, he
            kneeled.                              --Fuller.
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   3. Any liquid secretion, humor, or the like, resembling
      water; esp., the urine.
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   4. (Pharm.) A solution in water of a gaseous or readily
      volatile substance; as, ammonia water. --U. S. Pharm.
      [1913 Webster]

   5. The limpidity and luster of a precious stone, especially a
      diamond; as, a diamond of the first water, that is,
      perfectly pure and transparent. Hence, of the first water,
      that is, of the first excellence.
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   6. A wavy, lustrous pattern or decoration such as is imparted
      to linen, silk, metals, etc. See Water, v. t., 3,
      Damask, v. t., and Damaskeen.
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   7. An addition to the shares representing the capital of a
      stock company so that the aggregate par value of the
      shares is increased while their value for investment is
      diminished, or "diluted." [Brokers' Cant]
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   Note: Water is often used adjectively and in the formation of
         many self-explaining compounds; as, water drainage;
         water gauge, or water-gauge; waterfowl, water-fowl, or
         water fowl; water-beaten; water-borne, water-circled,
         water-girdled, water-rocked, etc.
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   Hard water. See under Hard.

   Inch of water, a unit of measure of quantity of water,
      being the quantity which will flow through an orifice one
      inch square, or a circular orifice one inch in diameter,
      in a vertical surface, under a stated constant head; also
      called miner's inch, and water inch. The shape of the
      orifice and the head vary in different localities. In the
      Western United States, for hydraulic mining, the standard
      aperture is square and the head from 4 to 9 inches above
      its center. In Europe, for experimental hydraulics, the
      orifice is usually round and the head from 1/2 of an inch
      to 1 inch above its top.

   Mineral water, waters which are so impregnated with foreign
      ingredients, such as gaseous, sulphureous, and saline
      substances, as to give them medicinal properties, or a
      particular flavor or temperature.

   Soft water, water not impregnated with lime or mineral

   To hold water. See under Hold, v. t.

   To keep one's head above water, to keep afloat; fig., to
      avoid failure or sinking in the struggles of life.

   To make water.
      (a) To pass urine. --Swift.
      (b) (Naut.) To admit water; to leak.

   Water of crystallization (Chem.), the water combined with
      many salts in their crystalline form. This water is
      loosely, but, nevertheless, chemically, combined, for it
      is held in fixed and definite amount for each substance
      containing it. Thus, while pure copper sulphate, CuSO4,
      is a white amorphous substance, blue vitriol, the
      crystallized form, CuSO4.5H2O, contains five molecules
      of water of crystallization.

   Water on the brain (Med.), hydrocephalus.

   Water on the chest (Med.), hydrothorax.
      [1913 Webster]

   Note: Other phrases, in which water occurs as the first
         element, will be found in alphabetical order in the
         [1913 Webster]
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