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From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
That \That\, pron., a., conj., & adv. [AS. [eth]aet, neuter nom. & acc. sing. of the article (originally a demonstrative pronoun). The nom. masc. s[=e], and the nom. fem. se['o] are from a different root. AS. [eth]aet is akin to D. dat, G. das, OHG. daz, Sw. & Dan. det, Icel. [thorn]at (masc. s[=a], fem. s[=o]), Goth. [thorn]ata (masc. sa, fem. s[=o]), Gr. ? (masc. ?, fem. ?), Skr. tat (for tad, masc. sas, fem. s[=a]); cf. L. istud that. [root]184. Cf. The, Their, They, Them, This, Than, Since.] 1. As a demonstrative pronoun (pl. Those), that usually points out, or refers to, a person or thing previously mentioned, or supposed to be understood. That, as a demonstrative, may precede the noun to which it refers; as, that which he has said is true; those in the basket are good apples. [1913 Webster] The early fame of Gratian was equal to that of the most celebrated princes. --Gibbon. [1913 Webster] Note: That may refer to an entire sentence or paragraph, and not merely to a word. It usually follows, but sometimes precedes, the sentence referred to. [1913 Webster] That be far from thee, to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked. --Gen. xviii. 25. [1913 Webster] And when Moses heard that, he was content. --Lev. x. 20. [1913 Webster] I will know your business, Harry, that I will. --Shak. [1913 Webster] Note: That is often used in opposition to this, or by way of distinction, and in such cases this, like the Latin hic and French ceci, generally refers to that which is nearer, and that, like Latin ille and French cela, to that which is more remote. When they refer to foreign words or phrases, this generally refers to the latter, and that to the former. [1913 Webster] Two principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain; Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call. --Pope. [1913 Webster] If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or that. --James iv. 16. [1913 Webster] 2. As an adjective, that has the same demonstrative force as the pronoun, but is followed by a noun. [1913 Webster] It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. --Matt. x. 15. [1913 Webster] The woman was made whole from that hour. --Matt. ix. 22. [1913 Webster] Note: That was formerly sometimes used with the force of the article the, especially in the phrases that one, that other, which were subsequently corrupted into th'tone, th'tother (now written t'other). [1913 Webster] Upon a day out riden knightes two . . . That one of them came home, that other not. --Chaucer. [1913 Webster] 3. As a relative pronoun, that is equivalent to who or which, serving to point out, and make definite, a person or thing spoken of, or alluded to, before, and may be either singular or plural. [1913 Webster] He that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself shame. --Prov. ix. 7. [1913 Webster] A judgment that is equal and impartial must incline to the greater probabilities. --Bp. Wilkins. [1913 Webster] [1913 Webster] Note: If the relative clause simply conveys an additional idea, and is not properly explanatory or restrictive, who or which (rarely that) is employed; as, the king that (or who) rules well is generally popular; Victoria, who (not that) rules well, enjoys the confidence of her subjects. Ambiguity may in some cases be avoided in the use of that (which is restrictive) instead of who or which, likely to be understood in a coordinating sense. --Bain. [1913 Webster] That was formerly used for that which, as what is now; but such use is now archaic. [1913 Webster] We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen. --John iii. 11. [1913 Webster] That I have done it is thyself to wite [blame]. --Chaucer. [1913 Webster] That, as a relative pronoun, cannot be governed by a preposition preceding it, but may be governed by one at the end of the sentence which it commences. [1913 Webster] The ship that somebody was sailing in. --Sir W. Scott. [1913 Webster] In Old English, that was often used with the demonstratives he, his, him, etc., and the two together had the force of a relative pronoun; thus, that he = who; that his = whose; that him = whom. [1913 Webster] I saw to-day a corpse yborn to church That now on Monday last I saw him wirche [work]. --Chaucer. [1913 Webster] Formerly, that was used, where we now commonly use which, as a relative pronoun with the demonstrative pronoun that as its antecedent. [1913 Webster] That that dieth, let it die; and that that is to cut off, let it be cut off. --Zech. xi. 9. [1913 Webster] 4. As a conjunction, that retains much of its force as a demonstrative pronoun. It is used, specifically: [1913 Webster] (a) To introduce a clause employed as the object of the preceding verb, or as the subject or predicate nominative of a verb. [1913 Webster] She tells them 't is a causeless fantasy, And childish error, that they are afraid. --Shak. [1913 Webster] I have shewed before, that a mere possibility to the contrary, can by no means hinder a thing from being highly credible. --Bp. Wilkins. [1913 Webster] (b) To introduce, a reason or cause; -- equivalent to for that, in that, for the reason that, because. [1913 Webster] He does hear me; And that he does, I weep. --Shak. [1913 Webster] (c) To introduce a purpose; -- usually followed by may, or might, and frequently preceded by so, in order, to the end, etc. [1913 Webster] These things I say, that ye might be saved. --John v. 34. [1913 Webster] To the end that he may prolong his days. --Deut. xvii. 20. [1913 Webster] (d) To introduce a consequence, result, or effect; -- usually preceded by so or such, sometimes by that. [1913 Webster] The birds their notes renew, and bleating herds Attest their joy, that hill and valley rings. --Milton. [1913 Webster] He gazed so long That both his eyes were dazzled. --Tennyson. [1913 Webster] (e) To introduce a clause denoting time; -- equivalent to in which time, at which time, when. [1913 Webster] So wept Duessa until eventide, That shining lamps in Jove's high course were lit. --Spenser. [1913 Webster] Is not this the day That Hermia should give answer of her choice? --Shak. [1913 Webster] (f) In an elliptical sentence to introduce a dependent sentence expressing a wish, or a cause of surprise, indignation, or the like. [1913 Webster] Ha, cousin Silence, that thou hadst seen that that this knight and I have seen! --Shak. [1913 Webster] O God, that right should thus overcome might! --Shak. [1913 Webster] Note: That was formerly added to other conjunctions or to adverbs to make them emphatic. [1913 Webster] To try if that our own be ours or no. --Shak. [1913 Webster] That is sometimes used to connect a clause with a preceding conjunction on which it depends. [1913 Webster] When he had carried Rome and that we looked For no less spoil than glory. --Shak. [1913 Webster] 5. As adverb: To such a degree; so; as, he was that frightened he could say nothing. [Archaic or in illiteral use.] [1913 Webster] All that, everything of that kind; all that sort. [1913 Webster] With singing, laughing, ogling, and all that. --Pope. [1913 Webster] The rank is but the guinea's stamp, The man's the gowd [gold] for a'that. --Burns. [1913 Webster] For that. See under For, prep. In that. See under In, prep. [1913 Webster]