From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

That \That\, pron., a., conj., & adv. [AS. [eth]aet, neuter nom.
   & acc. sing. of the article (originally a demonstrative
   pronoun). The nom. masc. s[=e], and the nom. fem. se['o] are
   from a different root. AS. [eth]aet is akin to D. dat, G.
   das, OHG. daz, Sw. & Dan. det, Icel. [thorn]at (masc. s[=a],
   fem. s[=o]), Goth. [thorn]ata (masc. sa, fem. s[=o]), Gr. ?
   (masc. ?, fem. ?), Skr. tat (for tad, masc. sas, fem. s[=a]);
   cf. L. istud that. [root]184. Cf. The, Their, They,
   Them, This, Than, Since.]
   1. As a demonstrative pronoun (pl. Those), that usually
      points out, or refers to, a person or thing previously
      mentioned, or supposed to be understood. That, as a
      demonstrative, may precede the noun to which it refers;
      as, that which he has said is true; those in the basket
      are good apples.
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            The early fame of Gratian was equal to that of the
            most celebrated princes.              --Gibbon.
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   Note: That may refer to an entire sentence or paragraph, and
         not merely to a word. It usually follows, but sometimes
         precedes, the sentence referred to.
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               That be far from thee, to do after this manner,
               to slay the righteous with the wicked. --Gen.
                                                  xviii. 25.
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               And when Moses heard that, he was content. --Lev.
                                                  x. 20.
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               I will know your business, Harry, that I will.
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   Note: That is often used in opposition to this, or by way of
         distinction, and in such cases this, like the Latin hic
         and French ceci, generally refers to that which is
         nearer, and that, like Latin ille and French cela, to
         that which is more remote. When they refer to foreign
         words or phrases, this generally refers to the latter,
         and that to the former.
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               Two principles in human nature reign;
               Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain;
               Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call. --Pope.
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               If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or
               that.                              --James iv.
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   2. As an adjective, that has the same demonstrative force as
      the pronoun, but is followed by a noun.
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            It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in
            the day of judgment, than for that city. --Matt. x.
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            The woman was made whole from that hour. --Matt. ix.
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   Note: That was formerly sometimes used with the force of the
         article the, especially in the phrases that one, that
         other, which were subsequently corrupted into th'tone,
         th'tother (now written t'other).
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               Upon a day out riden knightes two . . .
               That one of them came home, that other not.
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   3. As a relative pronoun, that is equivalent to who or which,
      serving to point out, and make definite, a person or thing
      spoken of, or alluded to, before, and may be either
      singular or plural.
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            He that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself
            shame.                                --Prov. ix. 7.
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            A judgment that is equal and impartial must incline
            to the greater probabilities.         --Bp. Wilkins.
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   Note: If the relative clause simply conveys an additional
         idea, and is not properly explanatory or restrictive,
         who or which (rarely that) is employed; as, the king
         that (or who) rules well is generally popular;
         Victoria, who (not that) rules well, enjoys the
         confidence of her subjects. Ambiguity may in some cases
         be avoided in the use of that (which is restrictive)
         instead of who or which, likely to be understood in a
         coordinating sense. --Bain.
         [1913 Webster] That was formerly used for that which,
         as what is now; but such use is now archaic.
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               We speak that we do know, and testify that we
               have seen.                         --John iii.
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               That I have done it is thyself to wite [blame].
         [1913 Webster] That, as a relative pronoun, cannot be
         governed by a preposition preceding it, but may be
         governed by one at the end of the sentence which it
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               The ship that somebody was sailing in. --Sir W.
         [1913 Webster] In Old English, that was often used with
         the demonstratives he, his, him, etc., and the two
         together had the force of a relative pronoun; thus,
         that he = who; that his = whose; that him = whom.
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               I saw to-day a corpse yborn to church
               That now on Monday last I saw him wirche [work].
         [1913 Webster] Formerly, that was used, where we now
         commonly use which, as a relative pronoun with the
         demonstrative pronoun that as its antecedent.
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               That that dieth, let it die; and that that is to
               cut off, let it be cut off.        --Zech. xi. 9.
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   4. As a conjunction, that retains much of its force as a
      demonstrative pronoun. It is used, specifically: 
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      (a) To introduce a clause employed as the object of the
          preceding verb, or as the subject or predicate
          nominative of a verb.
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                She tells them 't is a causeless fantasy,
                And childish error, that they are afraid.
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                I have shewed before, that a mere possibility to
                the contrary, can by no means hinder a thing
                from being highly credible.       --Bp. Wilkins.
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      (b) To introduce, a reason or cause; -- equivalent to for
          that, in that, for the reason that, because.
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                He does hear me;
                And that he does, I weep.         --Shak.
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      (c) To introduce a purpose; -- usually followed by may, or
          might, and frequently preceded by so, in order, to the
          end, etc.
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                These things I say, that ye might be saved.
                                                  --John v. 34.
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                To the end that he may prolong his days. --Deut.
                                                  xvii. 20.
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      (d) To introduce a consequence, result, or effect; --
          usually preceded by so or such, sometimes by that.
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                The birds their notes renew, and bleating herds
                Attest their joy, that hill and valley rings.
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                He gazed so long
                That both his eyes were dazzled.  --Tennyson.
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      (e) To introduce a clause denoting time; -- equivalent to
          in which time, at which time, when.
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                So wept Duessa until eventide,
                That shining lamps in Jove's high course were
                lit.                              --Spenser.
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                Is not this the day
                That Hermia should give answer of her choice?
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      (f) In an elliptical sentence to introduce a dependent
          sentence expressing a wish, or a cause of surprise,
          indignation, or the like.
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                Ha, cousin Silence, that thou hadst seen that
                that this knight and I have seen! --Shak.
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                O God, that right should thus overcome might!
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   Note: That was formerly added to other conjunctions or to
         adverbs to make them emphatic.
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               To try if that our own be ours or no. --Shak.
         [1913 Webster] That is sometimes used to connect a
         clause with a preceding conjunction on which it
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               When he had carried Rome and that we looked
               For no less spoil than glory.      --Shak.
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   5. As adverb: To such a degree; so; as, he was that
      frightened he could say nothing. [Archaic or in illiteral
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   All that, everything of that kind; all that sort.
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            With singing, laughing, ogling, and all that.
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            The rank is but the guinea's stamp,
            The man's the gowd [gold] for a'that. --Burns.
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   For that. See under For, prep.

   In that. See under In, prep.
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